Difference between revisions of "Albumen paper"

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== Description ==
 
== Description ==
  
A photographic printing-out paper widely used from about 1850-1890. Albumen paper was invented by Louis Desiré Blanquart and presented to the French Academy of Sciences in 1850. Blanquart used a thin layer of egg white protein to disperse and bind photosensitive salts. Egg white was whipped then allowed to settle to a liquid; this formed a homogeneous liquid which was mixed with small amounts of salt (usually [[sodium%20chloride|sodium chloride]] or [[ammonium%20chloride|ammonium chloride]]) and [[citric%20acid|citric acid]], then spread as a thin layer over a high quality cellulosic paper. After drying, the layer was activated by treatment with [[silver%20nitrate|silver nitrate]] to form [[silver%20chloride|silver chloride]], a light sensitive compound. To create an image, a negative was placed in direct contact with the paper, then exposed to daylight. Once the development was complete, it was stopped by treating the paper with a fixing agent such as [[sodium%20thiosulfate|sodium thiosulfate]]. Albumen prints were a golden to purplish brown color with a glossy surface. It was replaced in the 1890s by [[silver%20gelatin%20paper|silver gelatin paper]].
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A photographic [[printing out paper]] widely used from about 1850-1890. Albumen paper was invented by Louis Desiré Blanquart and presented to the French Academy of Sciences in 1850. Blanquart used a thin layer of egg white protein to disperse and bind photosensitive salts. Egg white was whipped then allowed to settle to a liquid; this formed a homogeneous liquid which was mixed with small amounts of salt (usually [[sodium chloride]] or [[ammonium chloride]]) and [[citric acid]], then spread as a thin layer over a high quality cellulosic paper. After drying, the layer was activated by treatment with [[silver nitrate]] to form [[silver chloride]], a light sensitive compound. To create an image, a negative was placed in direct contact with the paper, then exposed to daylight. Once the development was complete, it was stopped by treating the paper with a fixing agent such as [[sodium thiosulfate]]. Albumen prints were a golden to purplish brown color with a glossy surface. It was replaced in the 1890s by [[silver gelatin paper]].
  
 
[[File:1998.87-SC8649.jpg|thumb|'''MFA Acc. #:''' 1998.87]]
 
[[File:1998.87-SC8649.jpg|thumb|'''MFA Acc. #:''' 1998.87]]
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== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
  
albumen prints
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albumen print; albumen photograph
  
 
== Additional Information ==
 
== Additional Information ==
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James M. Reilly,  The Albumen & Salted Paper Book: The history and practice of photographic printing, 1840-1895. Light Impressions Corporation. Rochester, 1980
  
 
Timothy Vitale, Paul Messier, "Physical and Mechanical Properties of Albumen Photographs" ''JAIC'' 33(3):279-99, 1994.
 
Timothy Vitale, Paul Messier, "Physical and Mechanical Properties of Albumen Photographs" ''JAIC'' 33(3):279-99, 1994.
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== Authority ==
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== Sources Checked for Data in Record ==
  
 
* E.J.LaBarre, ''Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Paper and Paper-making'', Swets & Zeitlinger, Amsterdam, 1969  Comment: dates of use = 1850-1890
 
* E.J.LaBarre, ''Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Paper and Paper-making'', Swets & Zeitlinger, Amsterdam, 1969  Comment: dates of use = 1850-1890

Latest revision as of 13:10, 29 April 2016

MFA Acc. #: 1989.23

Description

A photographic Printing out paper widely used from about 1850-1890. Albumen paper was invented by Louis Desiré Blanquart and presented to the French Academy of Sciences in 1850. Blanquart used a thin layer of egg white protein to disperse and bind photosensitive salts. Egg white was whipped then allowed to settle to a liquid; this formed a homogeneous liquid which was mixed with small amounts of salt (usually Sodium chloride or Ammonium chloride) and Citric acid, then spread as a thin layer over a high quality cellulosic paper. After drying, the layer was activated by treatment with Silver nitrate to form Silver chloride, a light sensitive compound. To create an image, a negative was placed in direct contact with the paper, then exposed to daylight. Once the development was complete, it was stopped by treating the paper with a fixing agent such as Sodium thiosulfate. Albumen prints were a golden to purplish brown color with a glossy surface. It was replaced in the 1890s by Silver gelatin paper.

MFA Acc. #: 1998.87

Synonyms and Related Terms

albumen print; albumen photograph

Additional Information

James M. Reilly, The Albumen & Salted Paper Book: The history and practice of photographic printing, 1840-1895. Light Impressions Corporation. Rochester, 1980

Timothy Vitale, Paul Messier, "Physical and Mechanical Properties of Albumen Photographs" JAIC 33(3):279-99, 1994.

Comparisons

Common Types of Paper


Additional Images


Sources Checked for Data in Record

  • E.J.LaBarre, Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Paper and Paper-making, Swets & Zeitlinger, Amsterdam, 1969 Comment: dates of use = 1850-1890
  • The Dictionary of Art, Grove's Dictionaries Inc., New York, 1996 Comment: final date of use = 1895
  • Luis Nadeau, Encyclopedia of Printing, Photographic, and Photomechanical Processes, Atelier, New Brunswick, 1997 Comment: Invented by Louis Desire Blanquart in the late 1840s and presented to the French Academy of Sciences on May 27, 1850.
  • Caring for your Collections, Arthur W Schulz (ed.), Harry N. Abrams, Inc. , New York, 1992 Comment: Debbie Hess Norris chapter; dates of use = 1855-1885
  • Website address 1 Comment: Preservation 101 Glossary of Terms -invented in 1850 by Louis-Desire Blanquart-Evrard