Difference between revisions of "Albumen paper"

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== Description ==
 
== Description ==
  
A photographic printing-out paper widely used from about 1850-1890. Albumen paper was invented by Louis Desiré Blanquart and presented to the French Academy of Sciences in 1850. Blanquart used a thin layer of egg white protein to disperse and bind photosensitive salts. Egg white was whipped then allowed to settle to a liquid; this formed a homogeneous liquid which was mixed with small amounts of salt (usually [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=sodium%20chloride sodium chloride] or [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=ammonium%20chloride ammonium chloride]) and [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=citric%20acid citric acid], then spread as a thin layer over a high quality cellulosic paper. After drying, the layer was activated by treatment with [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=silver%20nitrate silver nitrate] to form [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=silver%20chloride silver chloride], a light sensitive compound. To create an image, a negative was placed in direct contact with the paper, then exposed to daylight. Once the development was complete, it was stopped by treating the paper with a fixing agent such as [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=sodium%20thiosulfate sodium thiosulfate]. Albumen prints were a golden to purplish brown color with a glossy surface. It was replaced in the 1890s by [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=silver%20gelatin%20paper silver gelatin paper].
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A photographic printing-out paper widely used from about 1850-1890. Albumen paper was invented by Louis Desiré Blanquart and presented to the French Academy of Sciences in 1850. Blanquart used a thin layer of egg white protein to disperse and bind photosensitive salts. Egg white was whipped then allowed to settle to a liquid; this formed a homogeneous liquid which was mixed with small amounts of salt (usually [[sodium%20chloride|sodium chloride]] or [[ammonium%20chloride|ammonium chloride]]) and [[citric%20acid|citric acid]], then spread as a thin layer over a high quality cellulosic paper. After drying, the layer was activated by treatment with [[silver%20nitrate|silver nitrate]] to form [[silver%20chloride|silver chloride]], a light sensitive compound. To create an image, a negative was placed in direct contact with the paper, then exposed to daylight. Once the development was complete, it was stopped by treating the paper with a fixing agent such as [[sodium%20thiosulfate|sodium thiosulfate]]. Albumen prints were a golden to purplish brown color with a glossy surface. It was replaced in the 1890s by [[silver%20gelatin%20paper|silver gelatin paper]].
  
 
[[File:1998.87-SC8649.jpg|thumb|'''MFA Acc. #:''' 1998.87]]
 
[[File:1998.87-SC8649.jpg|thumb|'''MFA Acc. #:''' 1998.87]]
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== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
  

Revision as of 10:10, 7 January 2014

MFA Acc. #: 1989.23

Description

A photographic printing-out paper widely used from about 1850-1890. Albumen paper was invented by Louis Desiré Blanquart and presented to the French Academy of Sciences in 1850. Blanquart used a thin layer of egg white protein to disperse and bind photosensitive salts. Egg white was whipped then allowed to settle to a liquid; this formed a homogeneous liquid which was mixed with small amounts of salt (usually Sodium chloride or Ammonium chloride) and Citric acid, then spread as a thin layer over a high quality cellulosic paper. After drying, the layer was activated by treatment with Silver nitrate to form Silver chloride, a light sensitive compound. To create an image, a negative was placed in direct contact with the paper, then exposed to daylight. Once the development was complete, it was stopped by treating the paper with a fixing agent such as Sodium thiosulfate. Albumen prints were a golden to purplish brown color with a glossy surface. It was replaced in the 1890s by Silver gelatin paper.

MFA Acc. #: 1998.87

Synonyms and Related Terms

albumen prints

Additional Information

Timothy Vitale, Paul Messier, "Physical and Mechanical Properties of Albumen Photographs" JAIC 33(3):279-99, 1994.

Comparisons

Common Types of Paper


Additional Images


Authority

  • E.J.LaBarre, Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Paper and Paper-making, Swets & Zeitlinger, Amsterdam, 1969 Comment: dates of use = 1850-1890
  • The Dictionary of Art, Grove's Dictionaries Inc., New York, 1996 Comment: final date of use = 1895
  • Luis Nadeau, Encyclopedia of Printing, Photographic, and Photomechanical Processes, Atelier, New Brunswick, 1997 Comment: Invented by Louis Desire Blanquart in the late 1840s and presented to the French Academy of Sciences on May 27, 1850.
  • Caring for your Collections, Arthur W Schulz (ed.), Harry N. Abrams, Inc. , New York, 1992 Comment: Debbie Hess Norris chapter; dates of use = 1855-1885
  • Website address 1 Comment: Preservation 101 Glossary of Terms -invented in 1850 by Louis-Desire Blanquart-Evrard

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