Difference between revisions of "Balsam fir"

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[[File:30_Balsam Fir_100x_Rad.jpg|thumb|Balsam fir (''Abies balsamea'')]]
 
[[File:30_Balsam Fir_100x_Rad.jpg|thumb|Balsam fir (''Abies balsamea'')]]
[[File:30_Balsam Fir_100x_Tan.jpg|thumb|Balsam fir (''Abies balsamea'')]]
 
 
==Physical and Chemical Properties==
 
==Physical and Chemical Properties==
 
Paper fiber type: Softwood. Using transmitted light microscopy, fibers are identified by large taxodiod ray parenchyma pits. Pits are frequently 2-3 across in horizontal rows. Appearance with [[Graff "C" stain]]: varies with pulping and bleaching. Average dimensions of fibers: length 3.5mm; width 30-40μm. Common pulping method: [[sulfite process|sulfite]] or [[kraft process|kraft]].
 
Paper fiber type: Softwood. Using transmitted light microscopy, fibers are identified by large taxodiod ray parenchyma pits. Pits are frequently 2-3 across in horizontal rows. Appearance with [[Graff "C" stain]]: varies with pulping and bleaching. Average dimensions of fibers: length 3.5mm; width 30-40μm. Common pulping method: [[sulfite process|sulfite]] or [[kraft process|kraft]].

Revision as of 15:33, 3 September 2020

Balsam Fir

Description

An evergreen coniferous tree, Abies balsamea, native to the northeastern United States and Canada. The fragrant, light yellowish brown balsam fir timber has a coarse but even grain. The wood is brittle and not very durable. It is used for packing boxes and paper pulp. Balsam fir produce a viscous oleoresin called Canada balsam.

Synonyms and Related Terms

Abies balsamea; bálsamo de abeto (Esp.); fir balsam; pine fir; balm of Gilead fir "

Balsam fir (Abies balsamea)

Physical and Chemical Properties

Paper fiber type: Softwood. Using transmitted light microscopy, fibers are identified by large taxodiod ray parenchyma pits. Pits are frequently 2-3 across in horizontal rows. Appearance with Graff "C" stain: varies with pulping and bleaching. Average dimensions of fibers: length 3.5mm; width 30-40μm. Common pulping method: sulfite or kraft.

Additional Images

Resources and Citations

  • Alden Identification Services, Microscopic Wood Identification: Link
  • H. A. Alden, A.C. Wiedenhoeft, "Qualified Determination of Provenance of Wood of the Firs (Abies spp. Mill) Using Microscopic Features of Rays: An Aid to Conservators, Curators and Art Historians" AIC Poster, reprinted online at http://www.si.edu/scmre/abies.html
  • G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 83
  • Dictionary of Building Preservation, Ward Bucher, ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York City, 1996
  • Kurt Wehlte, The Materials and Techniques of Painting, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, 1975
  • Marja-Sisko Ilvessalo-Pfäffli. Fiber Atlas: Identification of Papermaking Fibers (Springer Series in Wood Science). Springer, 1995.
  • Walter Rantanen. "Fiber ID Course." Integrated Paper Services. June 2013. Lecture.

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