Difference between revisions of "Bone"

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m (Text replace - "== Authority ==" to "== Sources Checked for Data in Record ==")
 
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[[File:17.1815-SC29755.jpg|thumb|]]
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[[File:17.1815-SC29755.jpg|thumb|Fragment of tibia<br>MFA# 17.1815]]
 
== Description ==
 
== Description ==
  
 
A white, rigid, calcareous structure that forms the skeleton of vertebrates. Bones have a concentric structure with central lymphatic canals (Haversian canals) surrounded by a spongy lamellar region (marrow) which in turn is protected by a dense outer cortex. The Haversian canals contain nerve tissues and blood vessels. Bones are primarily composed of [[calcium hydroxyapatite]] with smaller amounts of [[calcium carbonate]], [[calcium fluoride]], and [[magnesium phosphate]]. They also contain about 30% [[ossein]], a high molecular weight [[protein]]. Bones have been carved as tools (spear heads, needles, fish-hooks, handles, etc.) and art objects (ornaments, figurines, inlays, bottles, toys, etc.) since ancient times. They are generally whiter, more porous and less dense than [[ivory]]. Bones were also burnt to produce [[bone black]] and boiled to produce [[bone glue]].
 
A white, rigid, calcareous structure that forms the skeleton of vertebrates. Bones have a concentric structure with central lymphatic canals (Haversian canals) surrounded by a spongy lamellar region (marrow) which in turn is protected by a dense outer cortex. The Haversian canals contain nerve tissues and blood vessels. Bones are primarily composed of [[calcium hydroxyapatite]] with smaller amounts of [[calcium carbonate]], [[calcium fluoride]], and [[magnesium phosphate]]. They also contain about 30% [[ossein]], a high molecular weight [[protein]]. Bones have been carved as tools (spear heads, needles, fish-hooks, handles, etc.) and art objects (ornaments, figurines, inlays, bottles, toys, etc.) since ancient times. They are generally whiter, more porous and less dense than [[ivory]]. Bones were also burnt to produce [[bone black]] and boiled to produce [[bone glue]].
  
[[File:1984.283-SC111340.jpg|thumb|'''MFA Acc. #:''' 1984.283]]
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[[File:1984.283-SC111340.jpg|thumb|Trumpet<br>MFA # 1984.283]]
  
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
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[[[SliderGallery rightalign|MFA-Bone.jpg~FTIR]]]
 
[[[SliderGallery rightalign|MFA-Bone.jpg~FTIR]]]
  
== Other Properties ==
 
  
Bones can be microscopically distinguished from ivory because they are more porous and they lack the layered structure. UV autofluorescence is blue-white with spots.
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== Risks ==
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
! scope="row"| Mohs Hardness
 
| 2.5
 
|-
 
! scope="row"| Density
 
| 1.7-2.0
 
|}
 
 
 
== Hazards and Safety ==
 
  
 
Sensitive to temperature and humidity changes.
 
Sensitive to temperature and humidity changes.
  
== Additional Information ==
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== Physical and Chemical Properties ==
 
 
° A.Child, "Microbial Taphonomy of Archaeological Bone" ''Studies in Conservation'', 40:19-30, 1995.
 
  
° J.Thornton,"The Structure of Ivory and Ivory Substitutes", AIC Preprints, Philadelphia, 1981, p.173-181
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* Bones can be microscopically distinguished from ivory because they are more porous and they lack the layered structure
 +
* UV autofluorescence is blue-white with spots.
 +
* Mohs Hardness = 2.5
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* Density = 1.7-2.0
  
 
== Additional Images ==
 
== Additional Images ==
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</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
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== Resources and Citations ==
 +
 +
* A.Child, "Microbial Taphonomy of Archaeological Bone" ''Studies in Conservation'', 40:19-30, 1995.
  
== Sources Checked for Data in Record ==
+
* J.Thornton,"The Structure of Ivory and Ivory Substitutes", AIC Preprints, Philadelphia, 1981, p.173-181
  
 
* ''The Dictionary of Art'', Grove's Dictionaries Inc., New York, 1996  Comment: "Bone" by Frank Minney
 
* ''The Dictionary of Art'', Grove's Dictionaries Inc., New York, 1996  Comment: "Bone" by Frank Minney
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* ''The American Heritage Dictionary'' or ''Encarta'', via Microsoft Bookshelf 98, Microsoft Corp., 1998
 
* ''The American Heritage Dictionary'' or ''Encarta'', via Microsoft Bookshelf 98, Microsoft Corp., 1998
  
* Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, at http://www.wikipedia.com  Comment: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone  (Accessed Sept. 2, 2005)
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* Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone  (Accessed Sept. 2, 2005)
  
 
* Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabulary/aat/, J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 2000
 
* Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabulary/aat/, J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 2000

Latest revision as of 11:53, 12 August 2020

Fragment of tibia
MFA# 17.1815

Description

A white, rigid, calcareous structure that forms the skeleton of vertebrates. Bones have a concentric structure with central lymphatic canals (Haversian canals) surrounded by a spongy lamellar region (marrow) which in turn is protected by a dense outer cortex. The Haversian canals contain nerve tissues and blood vessels. Bones are primarily composed of Calcium hydroxyapatite with smaller amounts of Calcium carbonate, Calcium fluoride, and Magnesium phosphate. They also contain about 30% Ossein, a high molecular weight Protein. Bones have been carved as tools (spear heads, needles, fish-hooks, handles, etc.) and art objects (ornaments, figurines, inlays, bottles, toys, etc.) since ancient times. They are generally whiter, more porous and less dense than Ivory. Bones were also burnt to produce Bone black and boiled to produce Bone glue.

Trumpet
MFA # 1984.283

Synonyms and Related Terms

os (Fr.); knogle (Dan.); Knochen (Deut.); hueso (Esp.); osso (It., Port.); bot (Ned.); ben (Sven.)

FTIR

MFA-Bone.jpg


Risks

Sensitive to temperature and humidity changes.

Physical and Chemical Properties

  • Bones can be microscopically distinguished from ivory because they are more porous and they lack the layered structure
  • UV autofluorescence is blue-white with spots.
  • Mohs Hardness = 2.5
  • Density = 1.7-2.0

Additional Images

Resources and Citations

  • A.Child, "Microbial Taphonomy of Archaeological Bone" Studies in Conservation, 40:19-30, 1995.
  • J.Thornton,"The Structure of Ivory and Ivory Substitutes", AIC Preprints, Philadelphia, 1981, p.173-181
  • The Dictionary of Art, Grove's Dictionaries Inc., New York, 1996 Comment: "Bone" by Frank Minney
  • Hermann Kuhn, Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art and Antiquities, Butterworths, London, 1986
  • Caring for your Collections, Arthur W Schulz (ed.), Harry N. Abrams, Inc. , New York, 1992
  • Tom Rowland, Noel Riley, A-Z Guide to Cleaning, Conserving and Repairing Antiques, Constable and Co., Ltd., London, 1981
  • Oppi Untracht, Jewelry Concepts and Technology, Doubleday & Co., Inc., New York City, 1985 Comment: density=2.0
  • George Savage, Art and Antique Restorer's Handbook, Rockliff Publishing Corp, London, 1954
  • Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, Douglas M. Considine (ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1976
  • Random House, Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, Grammercy Book, New York, 1997
  • The American Heritage Dictionary or Encarta, via Microsoft Bookshelf 98, Microsoft Corp., 1998
  • CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Robert Weast (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, v. 61, 1980 Comment: density=1.7-2.0