Difference between revisions of "Cobalt violet"

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== Description ==
 
== Description ==
  
A general name for several violet color cobalt pigments. First developed in 1859, cobalt violet was the primary permanent violet pigment available. Cobalt violets range from deep to pale shades with either a pink or blue hue. The first cobalt violets used were composed of [[cobalt arsenate]]. This highly toxic compound is now rarely used. Instead most current cobalt violets are nontoxic and are made from either [[cobalt phosphate]], or [[cobalt ammonium phosphate]]. Cobalt violets are used in paints, glass, glazes and enamels.
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A general name for several violet color cobalt pigments. First developed in 1859, cobalt violet was the primary permanent violet pigment available. Cobalt violets range from deep to pale shades with either a pink or blue hue. The first cobalt violets used were composed of [[cobaltous arsenate|cobalt arsenate]]. This highly toxic compound is now rarely used. Instead most current cobalt violets are nontoxic and are made from either [[cobaltous phosphate|cobalt phosphate]], or [[cobaltous ammonium phosphate|cobalt ammonium phosphate]]. Cobalt violets are used in paints, glass, glazes and enamels.
  
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
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cobalt arsenate (light); cobalt phosphate (deep); Kobaltviolett (Deut.); violeta de cobalto (Esp.); violet de cobalt (Fr.); violetto di cobalto (It.); violeta de cobalto (Port.)
 
cobalt arsenate (light); cobalt phosphate (deep); Kobaltviolett (Deut.); violeta de cobalto (Esp.); violet de cobalt (Fr.); violetto di cobalto (It.); violeta de cobalto (Port.)
  
[[[SliderGallery rightalign|Cobalt Violet,dark(498).png~FTIR|Cobalt Violet(501).png~FTIR]]]
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[[[SliderGallery rightalign|Cobalt Violet, dark (498).PNG ~FTIR (MFA) (Cobalt Phosphate 498)|Cobalt Violet(501).PNG~FTIR (MFA) (Cobalt Arsenate 501)|Cobalt violet (Forbes MFA 498), 50X, 532 nm.TIF~Raman (MFA) (532nm)|Cobalt violet dark (Forbes MFA 498), 785nm resize.tif~Raman (MFA) (785nm)|Cobalt violet light, collodion slide (Forbes MFA 501), 532 nm.TIF~Raman (MFA) (532nm)|Slide11_F498.PNG~XRF (MFA)]]]
 
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== Risks ==
== Hazards and Safety ==
 
  
 
Skin contact may cause allergies, especially on elbows, neck and ankles.  Chronic inhalation may cause asthma.  Ingestion may cause vomiting, diarrhea and the sensation of hotness.
 
Skin contact may cause allergies, especially on elbows, neck and ankles.  Chronic inhalation may cause asthma.  Ingestion may cause vomiting, diarrhea and the sensation of hotness.
  
== Additional Information ==
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== Resources and Citations ==
  
° Pigments Through the Ages: [http://webexhibits.org/pigments/indiv/overview/coviolet.html Cobalt violet] ° Corbeil, Marie-Claude, Jean-Pierre Charland, Elizabeth Moffatt. 'The characterization of cobalt violet pigments' ''Studies in Conservation'' vol.47 (2002), pp.237-249.
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* Pigments Through the Ages: [http://webexhibits.org/pigments/indiv/overview/coviolet.html Cobalt violet]  
  
== Authority ==
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* Corbeil, Marie-Claude, Jean-Pierre Charland, Elizabeth Moffatt. 'The characterization of cobalt violet pigments' ''Studies in Conservation'' vol.47 (2002), pp.237-249.
  
 
* R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, ''Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia'', Dover Publications, New York, 1966
 
* R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, ''Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia'', Dover Publications, New York, 1966
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* Ralph Mayer, ''A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques'', Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969 (also 1945 printing)
 
* Ralph Mayer, ''A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques'', Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969 (also 1945 printing)
  
* ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', http://www.britannica.com  Comment: "Cobalt Processing." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2004.  Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.  15 Apr. 2004 .
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* ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', http://www.britannica.com  Comment: "Cobalt Processing." Accessed: 15 Apr. 2004.
  
* Website address 1  Comment: http://webexhibits.org/pigments/indiv/overview/coviolet.html - developed 1859
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* Website: http://webexhibits.org/pigments/indiv/overview/coviolet.html - developed 1859
  
 
* Thomas B. Brill, ''Light Its Interaction with Art and Antiquities'', Plenum Press, New York City, 1980
 
* Thomas B. Brill, ''Light Its Interaction with Art and Antiquities'', Plenum Press, New York City, 1980

Latest revision as of 07:56, 26 August 2020

Cobalt violet (deep)

Description

A general name for several violet color cobalt pigments. First developed in 1859, cobalt violet was the primary permanent violet pigment available. Cobalt violets range from deep to pale shades with either a pink or blue hue. The first cobalt violets used were composed of cobalt arsenate. This highly toxic compound is now rarely used. Instead most current cobalt violets are nontoxic and are made from either cobalt phosphate, or cobalt ammonium phosphate. Cobalt violets are used in paints, glass, glazes and enamels.

Synonyms and Related Terms

cobalt arsenate (light); cobalt phosphate (deep); Kobaltviolett (Deut.); violeta de cobalto (Esp.); violet de cobalt (Fr.); violetto di cobalto (It.); violeta de cobalto (Port.)

FTIR (MFA) (Cobalt Phosphate 498)

Cobalt Violet, dark (498).PNG

FTIR (MFA) (Cobalt Arsenate 501)

Cobalt Violet(501).PNG

Raman (MFA) (532nm)

Cobalt violet (Forbes MFA 498), 50X, 532 nm.TIF

Raman (MFA) (785nm)

Cobalt violet dark (Forbes MFA 498), 785nm resize.tif

Raman (MFA) (532nm)

Cobalt violet light, collodion slide (Forbes MFA 501), 532 nm.TIF

XRF (MFA)

Slide11 F498.PNG

Risks

Skin contact may cause allergies, especially on elbows, neck and ankles. Chronic inhalation may cause asthma. Ingestion may cause vomiting, diarrhea and the sensation of hotness.

Resources and Citations

  • Corbeil, Marie-Claude, Jean-Pierre Charland, Elizabeth Moffatt. 'The characterization of cobalt violet pigments' Studies in Conservation vol.47 (2002), pp.237-249.
  • R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia, Dover Publications, New York, 1966
  • Ralph Mayer, A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969 (also 1945 printing)
  • Thomas B. Brill, Light Its Interaction with Art and Antiquities, Plenum Press, New York City, 1980
  • Richard S. Lewis, Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 10th ed., 1993
  • Random House, Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, Grammercy Book, New York, 1997