Difference between revisions of "Cotton"

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m (formatting, added links to test resuls)
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| ° Testfabrics, Inc. [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0001 Army Carded Cotton Sateen] tested in 2013<br>
 
| ° Testfabrics, Inc. [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0001 Army Carded Cotton Sateen] tested in 2013<br>
|-
 
 
| ° Fabricut [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0002 Avanti Cocoa] tested in 2005<br>
 
| ° Fabricut [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0002 Avanti Cocoa] tested in 2005<br>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| ° John Ranger Textiles [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0003 Fawn] tested in 2016<br>
 
| ° John Ranger Textiles [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0003 Fawn] tested in 2016<br>
|-
 
 
| ° Testfabrics [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0004 Cotton] tested in 2016<br>
 
| ° Testfabrics [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0004 Cotton] tested in 2016<br>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| ° Whaleys Bradford [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0005 Cotton Domette Natural] tested in 2012<br>
 
| ° Whaleys Bradford [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0005 Cotton Domette Natural] tested in 2012<br>
|-
 
 
| ° Whaleys Bradford [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0006 Cotton Jersey CD26 Cream] tested in 2012<br>
 
| ° Whaleys Bradford [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0006 Cotton Jersey CD26 Cream] tested in 2012<br>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| ° Whaleys Bradford [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0007 Cotton Jersey CM15956] tested in 2012<br>
 
| ° Whaleys Bradford [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0007 Cotton Jersey CM15956] tested in 2012<br>
|-
 
 
| ° Khoon Heng [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0008 HJ3300 Burgundy] tested in 2017<br>
 
| ° Khoon Heng [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0008 HJ3300 Burgundy] tested in 2017<br>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| ° Khoon Heng [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0009 Cotton P33 Navy Blue] tested in 2017<br>
 
| ° Khoon Heng [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0009 Cotton P33 Navy Blue] tested in 2017<br>
|-
 
 
| ° Creation Baumann-Roselle [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0010 RM ultra 43 Navy Blue] tested in 2017<br>
 
| ° Creation Baumann-Roselle [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0010 RM ultra 43 Navy Blue] tested in 2017<br>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| ° Creation Baumann-Roselle [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0011 RM unisono 81 Beige] tested in 2017<br>
 
| ° Creation Baumann-Roselle [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0011 RM unisono 81 Beige] tested in 2017<br>
|-
 
 
| ° Khoon Heng [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0012 T 3340 Purple] tested in 2017<br>
 
| ° Khoon Heng [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0012 T 3340 Purple] tested in 2017<br>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| ° Khoon Heng [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0013 T 3712 Grey] tested in 2017<br>
 
| ° Khoon Heng [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0013 T 3712 Grey] tested in 2017<br>
|-
 
 
| ° Khoon Heng [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0014 T 3888 Blue] tested in 2017<br>
 
| ° Khoon Heng [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0014 T 3888 Blue] tested in 2017<br>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| ° Khoon Heng [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0015 TC 36 Black] tested in 2017<br>
 
| ° Khoon Heng [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0015 TC 36 Black] tested in 2017<br>
|-
 
 
| ° Khoon Heng [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0016 TR 268 Grey] tested in 2017<br>
 
| ° Khoon Heng [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0016 TR 268 Grey] tested in 2017<br>
 
|-
 
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| ° Iris Studio [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0017 Dark Brown Cotton Velvet] tested in 2010<br>
 
| ° Iris Studio [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0017 Dark Brown Cotton Velvet] tested in 2010<br>
|-
 
 
| ° Iris Studio [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0018 Dark Cobalt Heavy Cotton Satin] tested in 2012<br>
 
| ° Iris Studio [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0018 Dark Cobalt Heavy Cotton Satin] tested in 2012<br>
 
|-
 
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| ° Iris Studio [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0019 Dark Gray F9T 1A] tested in 2012<br>
 
| ° Iris Studio [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0019 Dark Gray F9T 1A] tested in 2012<br>
|-
 
 
| ° Iris Studio [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0020 Dark Indigo Heavy Cotton Satin] tested in 2011<br>
 
| ° Iris Studio [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0020 Dark Indigo Heavy Cotton Satin] tested in 2011<br>
 
|-
 
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| ° John Lewis [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0021 Domette Interlining] tested in 2012<br>
 
| ° John Lewis [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0021 Domette Interlining] tested in 2012<br>
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| ° Calvin Fabrics [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0022 Eco Linen 263] tested in 2014<br>
 
| ° Calvin Fabrics [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0022 Eco Linen 263] tested in 2014<br>
 
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| ° Iris Studio [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0023 Ecru Gray 1544.125] tested in 2012<br>
 
| ° Iris Studio [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0023 Ecru Gray 1544.125] tested in 2012<br>
|-
 
 
| ° Iris Studio [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0024 Gray  Ecru 1543] tested in 2013<br>
 
| ° Iris Studio [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0024 Gray  Ecru 1543] tested in 2013<br>
 
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| ° Creation Baumann [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0025 Indiana 96] tested in 2011<br>
 
| ° Creation Baumann [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0025 Indiana 96] tested in 2011<br>
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| ° Creation Baumann [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0026 Indiana II 96] tested in 2010<br>
 
| ° Creation Baumann [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0026 Indiana II 96] tested in 2010<br>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| ° Creation Baumann [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0027 Indiana II 96] tested in 2010<br>
 
| ° Creation Baumann [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0027 Indiana II 96] tested in 2010<br>
|-
 
 
| ° Creation Baumann [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0028 Indiana II 96] tested in 2012<br>
 
| ° Creation Baumann [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0028 Indiana II 96] tested in 2012<br>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| ° Creation Baumann [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0029 Indiana II 96] tested in 2012<br>
 
| ° Creation Baumann [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0029 Indiana II 96] tested in 2012<br>
|-
 
 
| ° Material World [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0030 Japara, natural] tested in 2012<br>
 
| ° Material World [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0030 Japara, natural] tested in 2012<br>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| ° JB Martin [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0031 8500 Juliet 5791 charcoal] tested in 2006<br>
 
| ° JB Martin [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0031 8500 Juliet 5791 charcoal] tested in 2006<br>
|-
 
 
| ° JB Martin [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0032 8550 Juliet 1000 Black] tested in 2007<br>
 
| ° JB Martin [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0032 8550 Juliet 1000 Black] tested in 2007<br>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| ° JB Martin [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0033 JB Martin 8550 Juliet 5786 chicory] tested in 2007<br>
 
| ° JB Martin [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0033 JB Martin 8550 Juliet 5786 chicory] tested in 2007<br>
 +
| ° Malabar [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0034 Kamla Arabica #215] tested in 2013<br>
 +
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| ° Malabar [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0035 Kamla Tamarind #41] tested in 2013<br>
 +
| ° Malabar [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0036 Kamla Mocha #216] tested in 2013<br>
 +
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| ° Malabar [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0037 Kamla Ash #211] tested in 2013<br>
 +
| ° Malabar [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0038 Kamla Taupe #209] tested in 2013<br>
 +
|-
 +
| ° Malabar [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0039 Kamla Garnet #07] tested in 2013<br>
 +
| ° Malabar [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0040 Kamla Indigo #252] tested in 2014<br>
 +
|-
 +
| ° Malabar [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0041 Kamla Larch #246] tested in 2014<br>
 +
| ° Malabar [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0042 Kamla Pecan #213] tested in 2014<br>
 +
|-
 +
| ° Malabar [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0043 Kamla Pewter #35] tested in 2013<br>
 +
| ° Malabar [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Fabrics#cotton0044 Kamla Rajah #12] tested in 2013<br>
 
|}
 
|}
  

Revision as of 14:33, 30 September 2018

99.664.65-SC33434.jpg

Description

A strong, natural vegetable fiber obtained from the exterior of the seeds of various species of Gossypium native to India, the Sudan, and Ethiopia. Cotton is a major textile fiber and an important source of cellulose. It contains 88-96% pure alpha cellulose; the remainder is protein, pectin, sugar, oil, and wax. Cotton cloth was made as early as 5000 BCE in India. By 3000 BCE, cotton fabrics were being woven in Egypt, China, and Peru. Cultivation of cotton became wide spread in Europe in the Middle Ages. Today, most cotton is grown in the United States, China, India, Pakistan, Brazil, and Turkey. Microscopically, cotton fibers look like flattened twisted tubes. They have good luster and dye well with basic, direct, vat, and reactive dyes producing lightfast and washfast colors. Cotton is used for making fabrics, cordage, padding, plastics, and rag paper.

See also mercerized cotton.

Cotton plant

Synonyms and Related Terms

white gold; qutun; kutun; coton (Fr.); bomuld (Dan.); Baumwollpflanze (Deut.); Baumwolle (Deut.); algodón (Esp.); cotone (It.); katoen (tje), katoenweefsel,katoenen stof; watje; katoenplant (genus Gossypium) katoengewas;katoen (draad/garen/stof/vezel); pluis (Ned); bomull (Nor., Sven.); algodão (Port.);

SEM

Cotton300m.jpg

SEM

Cotton1000m.jpg

Other Properties

Resistant to alkalis and most organic solvents. Degraded by strong acids and cuprammonium hydroxide.

Fiber length = 1.6 - 6 cm. Moisture regain 7.0-8.5 % Elongation = 5-10%

Cotton burns with a steady flame and smells like burning leaves. The flame can be easily extinguished by blowing and the ash is easily crumbled.

Melting Point 148 (dec)
Density 1.54-1.56

Paper fiber type: non-woody/seed. Using transmitted light microscopy, fibers appear as twisted tubes. Cut ends or blunt fiber ends are common in cotton rag pulp for papermaking. Cotton Linters tend to have more tapered ends. Immature fibers do not have a pronounced twist. Appearance with Graff "C" stain: pinkish red due to high alpha cellulose. Average dimensions: (Rag) length 18mm, width 20μm; (linter) Length 2-7mm long width 20μm. Common pulping method: Soda.

Hazards and Safety

Discolors and eventually degrades in sunlight. Combustible. Susceptible to mildew, bacteria and silverfish. Resistant to moths and beetles. Toxic by inhalation of dust.

Additional Information

G.Cook, Handbook of Textile Fibres:I. Natural Fibres, 5th edition, Merrow Publishing Co., Durham, England, 1984.

Links to Oddy Test results posted on AIC Wiki Materials Database Pages for individual materials below

° Testfabrics, Inc. Army Carded Cotton Sateen tested in 2013
° Fabricut Avanti Cocoa tested in 2005
° John Ranger Textiles Fawn tested in 2016
° Testfabrics Cotton tested in 2016
° Whaleys Bradford Cotton Domette Natural tested in 2012
° Whaleys Bradford Cotton Jersey CD26 Cream tested in 2012
° Whaleys Bradford Cotton Jersey CM15956 tested in 2012
° Khoon Heng HJ3300 Burgundy tested in 2017
° Khoon Heng Cotton P33 Navy Blue tested in 2017
° Creation Baumann-Roselle RM ultra 43 Navy Blue tested in 2017
° Creation Baumann-Roselle RM unisono 81 Beige tested in 2017
° Khoon Heng T 3340 Purple tested in 2017
° Khoon Heng T 3712 Grey tested in 2017
° Khoon Heng T 3888 Blue tested in 2017
° Khoon Heng TC 36 Black tested in 2017
° Khoon Heng TR 268 Grey tested in 2017
° Iris Studio Dark Brown Cotton Velvet tested in 2010
° Iris Studio Dark Cobalt Heavy Cotton Satin tested in 2012
° Iris Studio Dark Gray F9T 1A tested in 2012
° Iris Studio Dark Indigo Heavy Cotton Satin tested in 2011
° John Lewis Domette Interlining tested in 2012
° Calvin Fabrics Eco Linen 263 tested in 2014
° Iris Studio Ecru Gray 1544.125 tested in 2012
° Iris Studio Gray Ecru 1543 tested in 2013
° Creation Baumann Indiana 96 tested in 2011
° Creation Baumann Indiana II 96 tested in 2010
° Creation Baumann Indiana II 96 tested in 2010
° Creation Baumann Indiana II 96 tested in 2012
° Creation Baumann Indiana II 96 tested in 2012
° Material World Japara, natural tested in 2012
° JB Martin 8500 Juliet 5791 charcoal tested in 2006
° JB Martin 8550 Juliet 1000 Black tested in 2007
° JB Martin JB Martin 8550 Juliet 5786 chicory tested in 2007
° Malabar Kamla Arabica #215 tested in 2013
° Malabar Kamla Tamarind #41 tested in 2013
° Malabar Kamla Mocha #216 tested in 2013
° Malabar Kamla Ash #211 tested in 2013
° Malabar Kamla Taupe #209 tested in 2013
° Malabar Kamla Garnet #07 tested in 2013
° Malabar Kamla Indigo #252 tested in 2014
° Malabar Kamla Larch #246 tested in 2014
° Malabar Kamla Pecan #213 tested in 2014
° Malabar Kamla Pewter #35 tested in 2013
° Malabar Kamla Rajah #12 tested in 2013

Comparisons

File:Properties of Natural Fibers.pdf

Additional Images

Sources Checked for Data in Record

  • Hoechst Celanese Corporation, Dictionary of Fiber & Textile Technology (older version called Man-made Fiber and Textile Dictionary, 1965), Hoechst Celanese Corporation, Charlotte NC, 1990
  • The Dictionary of Paper, American Paper Institute, New York, Fourth Edition, 1980
  • J.Gordon Cook, Handbook of Textile Fibres:I Natural Fibres, Merrow Publishing Co. , Durham, England, 1984
  • The Dictionary of Art, Grove's Dictionaries Inc., New York, 1996 Comment: 'Cotton'
  • Marja-Sisko Ilvessalo-Pfäffli. Fiber Atlas: Identification of Papermaking Fibers (Springer Series in Wood Science). Springer, 1995.
  • Reed Kay, The Painter's Guide To Studio Methods and Materials, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1983
  • Hermann Kuhn, Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art and Antiquities, Butterworths, London, 1986
  • Rosalie Rosso King, Textile Identification, Conservation, and Preservation, Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, NJ, 1985
  • Michael McCann, Artist Beware, Watson-Guptill Publications, New York City, 1979
  • Matt Roberts, Don Etherington, Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books: a Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1982
  • Marjory L. Joseph, Introductory Textile Science, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Fort Worth, TX, 1986
  • A.Lucas, J.R.Harris, Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries, Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd., London, 4th edition, 1962
  • G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 245
  • Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, Douglas M. Considine (ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1976
  • Random House, Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, Grammercy Book, New York, 1997
  • Walter Rantanen. 'Fiber ID Course.' Integrated Paper Services. June 2013. Lecture.
  • The American Heritage Dictionary or Encarta, via Microsoft Bookshelf 98, Microsoft Corp., 1998
  • Dictionary of Building Preservation, Ward Bucher, ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York City, 1996 Comment: comment

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