Difference between revisions of "Disinfectant"

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== Description ==
 
== Description ==
  
A chemical or physical treatment that inhibits or kills microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoans). By the mid-19th century, disinfectants, such as [[phenol]] (carbolic acid) and [[iodine]], were recognized for their ability to reduce infractions. Currently the following major classes of chemical disinfecting compounds are used:  
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A chemical or physical treatment that inhibits or kills microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoans). By the mid-19th century, disinfectants, such as [[phenol]] (carbolic acid), and [[iodine]], were recognized for their ability to reduce infractions. Currently the following major classes of chemical disinfecting compounds are used:  
  
- Heavy metals and their compounds: [[copper]], [[silver]] (silver sulfadiazing, [[silver nitrate]]), and mercury ([[merthiolate]], [[mercuric chloride]])  
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* Heavy metals and their compounds: [[copper]], [[silver]] (silver sulfadiazing, [[silver nitrate]]), and mercury ([[merthiolate]], [[mercuric chloride]])  
  
- Halogens: iodine ([[Betadine®]]), and chlorine compounds ([[chlorine dioxide|chlorine gas]], sodium [[sodium hypochlorite]], [[chloramine T|chloramine]], [[hexachlorophene]], [[chlorhexidine]])  
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* Halogens: iodine ([[Betadine]]), and chlorine compounds ([[chlorine dioxide|chlorine gas]], sodium [[sodium hypochlorite]], [[chloramine T|chloramine]], [[hexachlorophene]], [[chlorhexidine]])  
  
- Alcohols: [[ethyl alcohol|ethanol]], [[isopropyl alcohol|isopropanol]]  
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* Alcohols: [[ethyl alcohol|ethanol]], [[isopropyl alcohol|isopropanol]]  
  
- Coal tar compounds ([[cresol]], [[creosote oil (wood)|creosote]], phenol, phenolics) and [[pine oil]]  
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* Coal tar compounds ([[cresol]], [[creosote oil (wood)|creosote]], phenol, phenolics) and [[pine oil]]  
  
- Surfactants: both cationic and anionic detergents  
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* Surfactants: both cationic and anionic detergents  
  
- Gas phase disinfectants: [[ozone]], [[ethylene oxide]], [[sulfur dioxide]], [[formaldehyde]], chlorine gas  
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* Gas phase disinfectants: [[ozone]], [[ethylene oxide]], [[sulfur dioxide]], [[formaldehyde]], chlorine gas  
  
- Ammonia: quaternary ammonia compounds kill gram positive bacteria  
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* Ammonia: quaternary ammonia compounds kill gram positive bacteria  
  
- Oxidizers: ozone, ethylene oxide; [[hydrogen peroxide]]  
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* Oxidizers: [[ozone]], [[ethylene oxide]]; [[hydrogen peroxide]]  
  
- Aldehydes and organic acids: formaldehyde, [[glutaraldehyde]], [[sorbic acid]], [[citric acid]], [[benzoic acid]] Physical methods of disinfection include:
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* Aldehydes and organic acids: [[formaldehyde]], [[glutaraldehyde]], [[sorbic acid]], [[citric acid]], [[benzoic acid]]
  
- Radiation: infrared (heat sterilization) and ultraviolet light (surface only)
 
  
- Moist heat: boiling or steam autoclaving
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Physical methods of disinfection include:  
  
- Pasteurization: heating and cooling cycles
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* [[Radiation]]: infrared (heat sterilization) and ultraviolet light (surface only)
  
- Filtration: laminar flow fume hoods
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* Moist heat: boiling or steam [[Autoclave|autoclaving]]
  
- Low Temperature: stops growth but does not kill all spores
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* Pasteurization: heating and cooling cycles
  
- Desiccation: prevents growth and replication but does not kill spores
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* Filtration: laminar flow fume hoods
  
- Osmotic pressure:
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* Low Temperature: stops growth but does not kill all spores
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* Desiccation: prevents growth and replication but does not kill spores
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* Osmotic pressure:
  
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
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antiseptic; germicide; biocide
 
antiseptic; germicide; biocide
  
== Hazards and Safety ==
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== Rosks ==
  
 
Mercury compounds are poisonous. Many antiseptic cause skin irritation.
 
Mercury compounds are poisonous. Many antiseptic cause skin irritation.
  
== Sources Checked for Data in Record ==
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== Resources and Citations ==
  
 
* G.S.Brady, ''Materials Handbook'', McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971  Comment: p. 271
 
* G.S.Brady, ''Materials Handbook'', McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971  Comment: p. 271
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* ''A Glossary of Paper Conservation Terms'', Margaret Ellis (ed.), Conservation Center of the Institute of Fine Arts, New York City, 1998
 
* ''A Glossary of Paper Conservation Terms'', Margaret Ellis (ed.), Conservation Center of the Institute of Fine Arts, New York City, 1998
  
* ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', http://www.britannica.com  Comment: "Disinfectant." Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 Sept. 2004 .
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* ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', http://www.britannica.com  Comment: "Disinfectant." (Accessed 7 Sept. 2004 ).
  
 
* ''Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia'', Douglas M. Considine (ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1976
 
* ''Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia'', Douglas M. Considine (ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1976
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* Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabulary/aat/, J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 2000
 
* Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabulary/aat/, J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 2000
  
* Website address 1  Comment: swyslwyg://76/htp://mindquest.net/biology/microbiology/outlines/u_cgrwth.html
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* Website address: swyslwyg://76/htp://mindquest.net/biology/microbiology/outlines/u_cgrwth.html
  
  
  
 
[[Category:Materials database]]
 
[[Category:Materials database]]

Revision as of 12:29, 7 August 2020

Description

A chemical or physical treatment that inhibits or kills microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoans). By the mid-19th century, disinfectants, such as Phenol (carbolic acid), and Iodine, were recognized for their ability to reduce infractions. Currently the following major classes of chemical disinfecting compounds are used:

  • Surfactants: both cationic and anionic detergents
  • Ammonia: quaternary ammonia compounds kill gram positive bacteria


Physical methods of disinfection include:

  • Radiation: infrared (heat sterilization) and ultraviolet light (surface only)
  • Pasteurization: heating and cooling cycles
  • Filtration: laminar flow fume hoods
  • Low Temperature: stops growth but does not kill all spores
  • Desiccation: prevents growth and replication but does not kill spores
  • Osmotic pressure:

Synonyms and Related Terms

antiseptic; germicide; biocide

Rosks

Mercury compounds are poisonous. Many antiseptic cause skin irritation.

Resources and Citations

  • G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 271
  • Richard S. Lewis, Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 10th ed., 1993
  • A Glossary of Paper Conservation Terms, Margaret Ellis (ed.), Conservation Center of the Institute of Fine Arts, New York City, 1998
  • Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, Douglas M. Considine (ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1976
  • The American Heritage Dictionary or Encarta, via Microsoft Bookshelf 98, Microsoft Corp., 1998
  • Website address: swyslwyg://76/htp://mindquest.net/biology/microbiology/outlines/u_cgrwth.html

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