Difference between revisions of "Gamboge"

From CAMEO
Jump to: navigation, search
(talk)
 
(8 intermediate revisions by 6 users not shown)
Line 2: Line 2:
 
== Description ==
 
== Description ==
  
A yellow-orange gum-resin produced by several species of ''Garcinia'' tree found in India, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Ceylon. Gamboge was used as a yellow pigment as early as the 8th century in Asia and Japan. It was regularly imported to Europe in the 17th century but a few earlier deliveries may have occurred. Gamboge is composed of a yellow resinous component (70-80%; morelloflavone) and a clear water-soluble [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=gum gum] (20%). Gamboge is marketed in the form of dull, brownish-yellow cakes or lumps. When powdered, it has a rich golden color. Gamboge is used as a transparent colorant in glazes, varnishes, and watercolors. The carbohydrate gum acts as a natural binder. The yellow color fades when exposed to light or [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=ozone ozone]. In some cases it has recovered its color when placed in the dark.
+
A yellow-orange gum-resin produced by several species of ''Garcinia'' tree found in India, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Ceylon. Gamboge was used as a yellow pigment as early as the 8th century in Asia and Japan. It was regularly imported to Europe in the 17th century but a few earlier deliveries may have occurred. Gamboge is composed of a yellow resinous component (70-80%; morelloflavone) and a clear water-soluble [[gum]] (20%). Gamboge is marketed in the form of dull, brownish-yellow cakes or lumps. When powdered, it has a rich golden color. Gamboge is used as a transparent colorant in glazes, varnishes, and watercolors. The carbohydrate gum acts as a natural binder. The yellow color fades when exposed to light or [[ozone]]. In some cases it has recovered its color when placed in the dark.
  
 
[[File:296 gamboge.jpg|thumb|Gamboge, powdered]]
 
[[File:296 gamboge.jpg|thumb|Gamboge, powdered]]
 +
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
  
 
''Garcinia'' sp.; Natural Yellow 24; gomaguta (Esp., Port.); Gummigutt (Deut.); gomme-gutte (Fr.); gomma gutta (It.); giallo Cambogia (It.); gamboji (Jap.); shio (Jap.); kiyo (Jap.); gamboge (Ned., Port.); camboge; cambogia; gum gutta; gutto gumbo; guti ambar; gambogium; rattan yellow; wisteria yellow; gummi-gutti; Siam gamboge; Ceylon gamboge; gokatu gamboge
 
''Garcinia'' sp.; Natural Yellow 24; gomaguta (Esp., Port.); Gummigutt (Deut.); gomme-gutte (Fr.); gomma gutta (It.); giallo Cambogia (It.); gamboji (Jap.); shio (Jap.); kiyo (Jap.); gamboge (Ned., Port.); camboge; cambogia; gum gutta; gutto gumbo; guti ambar; gambogium; rattan yellow; wisteria yellow; gummi-gutti; Siam gamboge; Ceylon gamboge; gokatu gamboge
  
[[[SliderGallery rightalign|GambogeUCL.jpg~Raman|MFA- Gamboge.jpg~FTIR|f296sem.jpg~SEM|f296edsbw.jpg~EDS]]]
+
[[[SliderGallery rightalign|Gamboge 297.TIF~FTIR (MFA)|GambogeUCL.jpg~Raman (UCL)|Gamboge color.PNG~EEM Color|Gamboge line.PNG~EEM Line|f296sem.jpg~SEM|f296edsbw.jpg~EDS|Slide 9 FC296.PNG~XRF]]]
  
 
== Other Properties ==
 
== Other Properties ==
Line 36: Line 37:
 
== Additional Information ==
 
== Additional Information ==
  
J.Winter, "Gamboge", ''Artists Pigments'', Volume 3, E. West FitzHugh (ed.), Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1997.
+
° J.Winter, "Gamboge", ''Artists Pigments'', Volume 3, E. West FitzHugh (ed.), Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1997.
  
 
== Additional Images ==
 
== Additional Images ==
Line 47: Line 48:
  
  
== Authority ==
+
== Sources Checked for Data in Record ==
  
 
* ''Artists' Pigments: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics'', Elisabeth West FitzHugh, Oxford University Press, Oxford, Vol. 3, 1997  Comment: J.Winter, "Gamboge"
 
* ''Artists' Pigments: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics'', Elisabeth West FitzHugh, Oxford University Press, Oxford, Vol. 3, 1997  Comment: J.Winter, "Gamboge"
  
* ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', http://www.britannica.com  Comment: Gamboge. Retrieved June 1, 2003, from Encyclopdia Britannica Premium Service.
+
* ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', http://www.britannica.com  Comment: Gamboge. Retrieved June 1, 2003, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
  
 
* ''The Dictionary of Art'', Grove's Dictionaries Inc., New York, 1996  Comment: 'Pigments'
 
* ''The Dictionary of Art'', Grove's Dictionaries Inc., New York, 1996  Comment: 'Pigments'
  
* R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, ''Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia'', Dover Publications, New York, 1966
+
* R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, ''Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia'', Dover Publications, New York, 1966
  
* Ralph Mayer, Ralph Mayer, ''A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques'', Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969 (also 1945 printing)
+
* Ralph Mayer, ''A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques'', Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969 (also 1945 printing)
  
* M. Doerner, M. Doerner, ''The Materials of the Artist'', Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1934
+
* M. Doerner, ''The Materials of the Artist'', Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1934
  
* R.D. Harley, R.D. Harley, ''Artists' Pigments c. 1600-1835'', Butterworth Scientific, London, 1982
+
* R.D. Harley, ''Artists' Pigments c. 1600-1835'', Butterworth Scientific, London, 1982
  
* F. Crace-Calvert, F. Crace-Calvert, ''Dyeing and Calico Printing'', Palmer & Howe, London, 1876
+
* F. Crace-Calvert, ''Dyeing and Calico Printing'', Palmer & Howe, London, 1876
  
* Helmut Schweppe, Helmut Schweppe, Schweppe color collection index and information book
+
* Helmut Schweppe, Schweppe color collection index and information book
  
* Book and Paper Group, Book and Paper Group, ''Paper Conservation Catalog'', AIC, 1984, 1989
+
* Book and Paper Group, ''Paper Conservation Catalog'', AIC, 1984, 1989
  
* R.Feller, M.Curran, C.Bailie, R.Feller, M.Curran, C.Bailie, 'Identification of Traditional Organic Colorants Employed in Japanese Prints and Determination of their Rates of Fading', ''Japanese Woodblock Prints'', Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Oberlin, 1984
+
* R.Feller, M.Curran, C.Bailie, 'Identification of Traditional Organic Colorants Employed in Japanese Prints and Determination of their Rates of Fading', ''Japanese Woodblock Prints'', Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Oberlin, 1984
  
* Website address 1, Website address 1  Comment: "Violin Varnish Glossary" at www.violins.on.ca/luthier.vargloss.html
+
* Website address 1  Comment: "Violin Varnish Glossary" at www.violins.on.ca/luthier.vargloss.html
  
 
* ''CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics'', Robert Weast (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, v. 61, 1980  Comment: density=1.2
 
* ''CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics'', Robert Weast (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, v. 61, 1980  Comment: density=1.2

Latest revision as of 19:47, 4 November 2019

Gamboge pieces

Description

A yellow-orange gum-resin produced by several species of Garcinia tree found in India, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Ceylon. Gamboge was used as a yellow pigment as early as the 8th century in Asia and Japan. It was regularly imported to Europe in the 17th century but a few earlier deliveries may have occurred. Gamboge is composed of a yellow resinous component (70-80%; morelloflavone) and a clear water-soluble gum (20%). Gamboge is marketed in the form of dull, brownish-yellow cakes or lumps. When powdered, it has a rich golden color. Gamboge is used as a transparent colorant in glazes, varnishes, and watercolors. The carbohydrate gum acts as a natural binder. The yellow color fades when exposed to light or ozone. In some cases it has recovered its color when placed in the dark.

Gamboge, powdered

Synonyms and Related Terms

Garcinia sp.; Natural Yellow 24; gomaguta (Esp., Port.); Gummigutt (Deut.); gomme-gutte (Fr.); gomma gutta (It.); giallo Cambogia (It.); gamboji (Jap.); shio (Jap.); kiyo (Jap.); gamboge (Ned., Port.); camboge; cambogia; gum gutta; gutto gumbo; guti ambar; gambogium; rattan yellow; wisteria yellow; gummi-gutti; Siam gamboge; Ceylon gamboge; gokatu gamboge

FTIR (MFA)

Gamboge 297.TIF

Raman (UCL)

GambogeUCL.jpg

EEM Color

Gamboge color.PNG

EEM Line

Gamboge line.PNG

SEM

F296sem.jpg

EDS

F296edsbw.jpg

XRF

Slide 9 FC296.PNG


Other Properties

Yellow resinous portion is soluble in ethanol. Colorless carbohydrate portion is soluble in water. Burns with an odor of resin. Turns red in dilute alkali solutions.

The small amorphous particles are transparent in transmitted light.

ISO R105 Lightfastness Classification = 2-3

Density 1.2
Refractive Index 1.582-1.586

Hazards and Safety

Discolors to red with ammonia and other alkali. Fades in sunlight or ozone.

Toxic by ingestion.

Additional Information

° J.Winter, "Gamboge", Artists Pigments, Volume 3, E. West FitzHugh (ed.), Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1997.

Additional Images


Sources Checked for Data in Record

  • Artists' Pigments: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics, Elisabeth West FitzHugh, Oxford University Press, Oxford, Vol. 3, 1997 Comment: J.Winter, "Gamboge"
  • Encyclopedia Britannica, http://www.britannica.com Comment: Gamboge. Retrieved June 1, 2003, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
  • The Dictionary of Art, Grove's Dictionaries Inc., New York, 1996 Comment: 'Pigments'
  • R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia, Dover Publications, New York, 1966
  • Ralph Mayer, A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969 (also 1945 printing)
  • M. Doerner, The Materials of the Artist, Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1934
  • R.D. Harley, Artists' Pigments c. 1600-1835, Butterworth Scientific, London, 1982
  • F. Crace-Calvert, Dyeing and Calico Printing, Palmer & Howe, London, 1876
  • Helmut Schweppe, Schweppe color collection index and information book
  • Book and Paper Group, Paper Conservation Catalog, AIC, 1984, 1989
  • R.Feller, M.Curran, C.Bailie, 'Identification of Traditional Organic Colorants Employed in Japanese Prints and Determination of their Rates of Fading', Japanese Woodblock Prints, Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Oberlin, 1984
  • Website address 1 Comment: "Violin Varnish Glossary" at www.violins.on.ca/luthier.vargloss.html
  • CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Robert Weast (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, v. 61, 1980 Comment: density=1.2