Difference between revisions of "Gamboge"

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[[File:gamboge_pieces_1.jpg|thumb|Gamboge pieces]]
 
[[File:gamboge_pieces_1.jpg|thumb|Gamboge pieces]]
 
== Description ==
 
== Description ==
 
A yellow-orange gum-resin produced by several species of ''Garcinia'' tree found in India, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Ceylon. Gamboge was used as a yellow pigment as early as the 8th century in Asia and Japan. It was regularly imported to Europe in the 17th century but a few earlier deliveries may have occurred. Gamboge is composed of a yellow resinous component (70-80%; morelloflavone) and a clear water-soluble [[gum]] (20%). Gamboge is marketed in the form of dull, brownish-yellow cakes or lumps. When powdered, it has a rich golden color. Gamboge is used as a transparent colorant in glazes, varnishes, and watercolors. The carbohydrate gum acts as a natural binder. The yellow color fades when exposed to light or [[ozone]]. In some cases it has recovered its color when placed in the dark.
 
 
 
[[File:296 gamboge.jpg|thumb|Gamboge, powdered]]
 
[[File:296 gamboge.jpg|thumb|Gamboge, powdered]]
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A yellow-orange gum-resin produced by several species of ''Garcinia'' tree found in India, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Ceylon. Gamboge was used as a yellow pigment as early as the 8th century in Asia and Japan. It was regularly imported to Europe in the 17th century but a few earlier deliveries may have occurred. Gamboge is composed of a yellow resinous component (70-80%; morelloflavone) and a clear water-soluble [[gum]] (20%). Gamboge is marketed in the form of dull, brownish-yellow cakes or lumps. When powdered, it has a rich golden color. Gamboge is used as a transparent colorant in dyes, glazes, varnishes, and watercolors. The carbohydrate gum acts as a natural binder. The yellow color fades when exposed to light or [[ozone]]. In some cases it has recovered its color when placed in the dark.
  
 +
* See also [[http://cameo.mfa.org/wiki/Category:Uemura_dye_archive '''Uemera Dye Archive''' (Touou/Kusashio)]]
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
  
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File:15_Powd_gamboge_200X.jpg|Powdered gamboge
 
File:15_Powd_gamboge_200X.jpg|Powdered gamboge
 
File:gamboge_dyed paper.jpg|Gamboge
 
File:gamboge_dyed paper.jpg|Gamboge
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File:Uemura 07-09-2009 195.jpg|Silk dyed with gamboge, Uemera Dye Archive
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 +
 
== Sources Checked for Data in Record ==
 
== Sources Checked for Data in Record ==
  
 
* J.Winter, "Gamboge", ''Artists Pigments'', Volume 3, E. West FitzHugh (ed.), Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1997.
 
* J.Winter, "Gamboge", ''Artists Pigments'', Volume 3, E. West FitzHugh (ed.), Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1997.
  
* ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', http://www.britannica.com  Comment: Gamboge. Retrieved June 1, 2003, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
+
* ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', http://www.britannica.com  'Gamboge' Accessed: June 1, 2003
  
 
* ''The Dictionary of Art'', Grove's Dictionaries Inc., New York, 1996  Comment: 'Pigments'
 
* ''The Dictionary of Art'', Grove's Dictionaries Inc., New York, 1996  Comment: 'Pigments'
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* R.Feller, M.Curran, C.Bailie, 'Identification of Traditional Organic Colorants Employed in Japanese Prints and Determination of their Rates of Fading', ''Japanese Woodblock Prints'', Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Oberlin, 1984
 
* R.Feller, M.Curran, C.Bailie, 'Identification of Traditional Organic Colorants Employed in Japanese Prints and Determination of their Rates of Fading', ''Japanese Woodblock Prints'', Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Oberlin, 1984
  
* Website address 1  Comment: "Violin Varnish Glossary" at www.violins.on.ca/luthier.vargloss.html
+
* "Violin Varnish Glossary" at www.violins.on.ca/luthier.vargloss.html
  
 
* ''CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics'', Robert Weast (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, v. 61, 1980  Comment: density=1.2
 
* ''CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics'', Robert Weast (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, v. 61, 1980  Comment: density=1.2
  
 
* Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabulary/aat/, J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 2000
 
* Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabulary/aat/, J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 2000
 
  
  
 
[[Category:Materials database]]
 
[[Category:Materials database]]

Latest revision as of 15:10, 30 June 2020

Gamboge pieces

Description

Gamboge, powdered

A yellow-orange gum-resin produced by several species of Garcinia tree found in India, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Ceylon. Gamboge was used as a yellow pigment as early as the 8th century in Asia and Japan. It was regularly imported to Europe in the 17th century but a few earlier deliveries may have occurred. Gamboge is composed of a yellow resinous component (70-80%; morelloflavone) and a clear water-soluble Gum (20%). Gamboge is marketed in the form of dull, brownish-yellow cakes or lumps. When powdered, it has a rich golden color. Gamboge is used as a transparent colorant in dyes, glazes, varnishes, and watercolors. The carbohydrate gum acts as a natural binder. The yellow color fades when exposed to light or Ozone. In some cases it has recovered its color when placed in the dark.

Synonyms and Related Terms

Garcinia sp.; Natural Yellow 24; gomaguta (Esp., Port.); Gummigutt (Deut.); gomme-gutte (Fr.); gomma gutta (It.); giallo Cambogia (It.); gamboji (Jap.); shio (Jap.); kiyo (Jap.); gamboge (Ned., Port.); camboge; cambogia; gum gutta; gutto gumbo; guti ambar; gambogium; rattan yellow; wisteria yellow; gummi-gutti; Siam gamboge; Ceylon gamboge; gokatu gamboge

FTIR (MFA)

Gamboge 297.TIF

Raman (UCL)

GambogeUCL.jpg

EEM Color

Gamboge color.PNG

EEM Line

Gamboge line.PNG

SEM

F296sem.jpg

EDS

F296edsbw.jpg

XRF

Slide 9 FC296.PNG


Physical and Chemical Properties

Yellow resinous portion is soluble in ethanol. Colorless carbohydrate portion is soluble in water. Burns with an odor of resin. Turns red in dilute alkali solutions.

The small amorphous particles are transparent in transmitted light.

  • ISO R105 Lightfastness Classification = 2-3
  • Density = 1.2
  • Refractive Index = 1.582-1.586

Hazards and Safety

Discolors to red with ammonia and other alkali. Fades in sunlight or ozone.

Toxic by ingestion.

Additional Images

Sources Checked for Data in Record

  • J.Winter, "Gamboge", Artists Pigments, Volume 3, E. West FitzHugh (ed.), Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1997.
  • The Dictionary of Art, Grove's Dictionaries Inc., New York, 1996 Comment: 'Pigments'
  • R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia, Dover Publications, New York, 1966
  • Ralph Mayer, A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969 (also 1945 printing)
  • M. Doerner, The Materials of the Artist, Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1934
  • R.D. Harley, Artists' Pigments c. 1600-1835, Butterworth Scientific, London, 1982
  • F. Crace-Calvert, Dyeing and Calico Printing, Palmer & Howe, London, 1876
  • Helmut Schweppe, Schweppe color collection index and information book
  • Book and Paper Group, Paper Conservation Catalog, AIC, 1984, 1989
  • R.Feller, M.Curran, C.Bailie, 'Identification of Traditional Organic Colorants Employed in Japanese Prints and Determination of their Rates of Fading', Japanese Woodblock Prints, Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Oberlin, 1984
  • "Violin Varnish Glossary" at www.violins.on.ca/luthier.vargloss.html
  • CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Robert Weast (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, v. 61, 1980 Comment: density=1.2