Difference between revisions of "Ground"

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2. Emulsion -a glue medium emulsified with some oil, egg, or natural resin
 
2. Emulsion -a glue medium emulsified with some oil, egg, or natural resin
  
3. Oil ground- a drying oil, such as [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=linseed oil linseed oil], with [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=lead white lead white] or other white pigment
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3. Oil ground- a drying oil, such as [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=linseed%20oil linseed oil], with [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=lead%20white lead white] or other white pigment
  
 
4. Synthetic - acrylic or alkyd based primer introduced in the late 20th century
 
4. Synthetic - acrylic or alkyd based primer introduced in the late 20th century
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For gilding, [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=bole bole] is used as a colored ground or priming layer.  Bole is typically composed of a red or brown clay.  Colored grounds have also been used for drawings and paintings made with [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=gouache gouache], [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=pastel pastel], [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=charcoal charcoal], and [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=crayon crayon].  
 
For gilding, [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=bole bole] is used as a colored ground or priming layer.  Bole is typically composed of a red or brown clay.  Colored grounds have also been used for drawings and paintings made with [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=gouache gouache], [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=pastel pastel], [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=charcoal charcoal], and [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=crayon crayon].  
  
For printmaking, the ground layer is a dark, acid-resistant coating containing [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=wax wax], [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=tallow tallow], [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=asphalt asphalt], and/or [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=natural resin natural resin].
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For printmaking, the ground layer is a dark, acid-resistant coating containing [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=wax wax], [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=tallow tallow], [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=asphalt asphalt], and/or [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=natural%20resin natural resin].
  
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
  
primer; gesso; preparacin (Esp.); aparejo (Esp.); prparation (Fr.); fond (Fr.); camada preparatria (Port.); preparao (Port.)
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primer; gesso; preparación (Esp.); aparejo (Esp.); préparation (Fr.); fond (Fr.); camada preparatória (Port.); preparação (Port.)
  
 
== Additional Information ==
 
== Additional Information ==
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== Authority ==
 
== Authority ==
  
* Reed Kay, Reed Kay, ''The Painter's Guide To Studio Methods and Materials'', Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1983
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* Reed Kay, ''The Painter's Guide To Studio Methods and Materials'', Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1983
  
* Ralph Mayer, Ralph Mayer, ''A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques'', Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969 (also 1945 printing)
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* Ralph Mayer, ''A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques'', Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969 (also 1945 printing)
  
  
  
 
[[Category:Materials database]]
 
[[Category:Materials database]]

Revision as of 07:50, 24 July 2013

Description

A foundation layer used to prepare a support material for the application of paint. Grounds provide a smooth, uniform, and nonporous surface. They can also act as a separating and stabilizing layer to minimize environmental distortions or support deterioration due to reactions with the paint.

For artist paintings, grounds typically fall into these categories.

1. Gesso or chalk - a glue binder mixed with gypsum or chalk

2. Emulsion -a glue medium emulsified with some oil, egg, or natural resin

3. Oil ground- a drying oil, such as linseed oil, with lead white or other white pigment

4. Synthetic - acrylic or alkyd based primer introduced in the late 20th century

For gilding, bole is used as a colored ground or priming layer. Bole is typically composed of a red or brown clay. Colored grounds have also been used for drawings and paintings made with gouache, pastel, charcoal, and crayon.

For printmaking, the ground layer is a dark, acid-resistant coating containing wax, tallow, asphalt, and/or natural resin.

Synonyms and Related Terms

primer; gesso; preparación (Esp.); aparejo (Esp.); préparation (Fr.); fond (Fr.); camada preparatória (Port.); preparação (Port.)

Additional Information

J.Stephenson, "Ground" The Dictionary of Art, Grove's Dictionaries Inc. New York, 1996.

Authority

  • Reed Kay, The Painter's Guide To Studio Methods and Materials, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1983
  • Ralph Mayer, A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969 (also 1945 printing)

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