Difference between revisions of "Ground"

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For artist paintings, grounds typically fall into these categories.
 
For artist paintings, grounds typically fall into these categories.
  
1. Gesso or chalk - a [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=glue glue] binder mixed with [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=gypsum gypsum] or [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=chalk chalk]
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1. Gesso or chalk - a [[glue]] binder mixed with [[gypsum]] or [[chalk]]
  
 
2. Emulsion -a glue medium emulsified with some oil, egg, or natural resin
 
2. Emulsion -a glue medium emulsified with some oil, egg, or natural resin
  
3. Oil ground- a drying oil, such as [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=linseed%20oil linseed oil], with [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=lead%20white lead white] or other white pigment
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3. Oil ground- a drying oil, such as [[linseed oil]], with [[lead white]] or other white pigment
  
 
4. Synthetic - acrylic or alkyd based primer introduced in the late 20th century
 
4. Synthetic - acrylic or alkyd based primer introduced in the late 20th century
  
For gilding, [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=bole bole] is used as a colored ground or priming layer.  Bole is typically composed of a red or brown clay.  Colored grounds have also been used for drawings and paintings made with [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=gouache gouache], [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=pastel pastel], [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=charcoal charcoal], and [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=crayon crayon].  
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For gilding, [[bole]] is used as a colored ground or priming layer.  Bole is typically composed of a red or brown clay.  Colored grounds have also been used for drawings and paintings made with [[gouache]], [[pastel]], [[charcoal]], and [[crayon]].  
  
For printmaking, the ground layer is a dark, acid-resistant coating containing [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=wax wax], [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=tallow tallow], [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=asphalt asphalt], and/or [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=natural%20resin natural resin].
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For printmaking, the ground layer is a dark, acid-resistant coating containing [[wax]], [[tallow]], [[asphalt]], and/or [[natural resin]].
  
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==

Revision as of 10:24, 16 January 2014

Description

A foundation layer used to prepare a support material for the application of paint. Grounds provide a smooth, uniform, and nonporous surface. They can also act as a separating and stabilizing layer to minimize environmental distortions or support deterioration due to reactions with the paint.

For artist paintings, grounds typically fall into these categories.

1. Gesso or chalk - a glue binder mixed with gypsum or chalk

2. Emulsion -a glue medium emulsified with some oil, egg, or natural resin

3. Oil ground- a drying oil, such as linseed oil, with lead white or other white pigment

4. Synthetic - acrylic or alkyd based primer introduced in the late 20th century

For gilding, bole is used as a colored ground or priming layer. Bole is typically composed of a red or brown clay. Colored grounds have also been used for drawings and paintings made with gouache, pastel, charcoal, and crayon.

For printmaking, the ground layer is a dark, acid-resistant coating containing wax, tallow, asphalt, and/or natural resin.

Synonyms and Related Terms

primer; gesso; preparación (Esp.); aparejo (Esp.); préparation (Fr.); fond (Fr.); camada preparatória (Port.); preparação (Port.)

Additional Information

J.Stephenson, "Ground" The Dictionary of Art, Grove's Dictionaries Inc. New York, 1996.

Authority

  • Reed Kay, The Painter's Guide To Studio Methods and Materials, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1983
  • Ralph Mayer, A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969 (also 1945 printing)

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