Difference between revisions of "Jute"

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Source: Comparative Plant Fiber Collection
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[[File:Asian fabric 34.1312.jpg|thumb|Asian fabric <br>MFA#34.1312]]
{|
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== Description ==
|[[FILE:998f2a1ed3c4be6b244fe0626af37185.jpg|300px]]
 
Jute-001-06-19-09-BF-400X-PM-9
 
||
 
{| Class="wikitable" border="1" style="border-collapse:collapse;"
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Accession Number
 
|| Jute
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Title
 
|| Jute
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Processing treatment
 
|| commercial processing
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Image Identification information
 
|| Jute-001-06-19-09-BF-400X-PM-9
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Date of image capture
 
|| 06/19/09
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Microscopist
 
|| L. Crawford
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Microscope
 
|| Zeiss Axioplan
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Mounting agent and RI
 
|| RI: permount 1.515
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Lumen type
 
|| lumen not apparent
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Fiber size
 
|| narrow fiber diameter
 
|}
 
|}
 
{|
 
|[[FILE:e904fb9cff5e370565b6866d82bf00bf.jpg|300px]]
 
Jute-002-06-19-09-DF-400X-PM-9
 
||
 
{| Class="wikitable" border="1" style="border-collapse:collapse;"
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Accession Number
 
|| Jute
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Title
 
|| Jute
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Processing treatment
 
|| commercial processing
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Image Identification information
 
|| Jute-002-06-19-09-DF-400X-PM-9
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Date of image capture
 
|| 06/19/09
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Microscopist
 
|| L. Crawford
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Microscope
 
|| Zeiss Axioplan
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Mounting agent and RI
 
|| RI: permount 1.515
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Lumen type
 
|| lumen not apparent
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Fiber size
 
|| narrow fiber diameter
 
|}
 
|}
 
{|
 
|[[FILE:afebcb4490b8fc0095b83ef706b6c313.jpg|300px]]
 
Jute-003-06-19-09-POL-400X-PM-9
 
||
 
{| Class="wikitable" border="1" style="border-collapse:collapse;"
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Accession Number
 
|| Jute
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Title
 
|| Jute
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Processing treatment
 
|| commercial processing
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Image Identification information
 
|| Jute-003-06-19-09-POL-400X-PM-9
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Date of image capture
 
|| 06/19/09
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Microscopist
 
|| L. Crawford
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Microscope
 
|| Zeiss Axioplan
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Mounting agent and RI
 
|| RI: permount 1.515
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Lumen type
 
|| lumen not apparent
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Fiber size
 
|| narrow fiber diameter
 
|}
 
|}
 
{|
 
|[[FILE:a0432c65e7ab925bbe6b89f65b047332.jpg|300px]]
 
Jute-004-06-19-09-DIC-400X-PM-9
 
||
 
{| Class="wikitable" border="1" style="border-collapse:collapse;"
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Accession Number
 
|| Jute
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Title
 
|| Jute
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Processing treatment
 
|| commercial processing
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Image Identification information
 
|| Jute-004-06-19-09-DIC-400X-PM-9
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Date of image capture
 
|| 06/19/09
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Microscopist
 
|| L. Crawford
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Microscope
 
|| Zeiss Axioplan
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Mounting agent and RI
 
|| RI: permount 1.515
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Lumen type
 
|| lumen not apparent
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Fiber size
 
|| narrow fiber diameter
 
|}
 
|}
 
{|
 
|[[FILE:9a32131cc216fb8f4a7ff41223a80ab4.jpg|300px]]
 
Jute-005-06-19-09-POL-400X-PM-9
 
||
 
{| Class="wikitable" border="1" style="border-collapse:collapse;"
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Accession Number
 
|| Jute
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Title
 
|| Jute
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Processing treatment
 
|| commercial processing
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Image Identification information
 
|| Jute-005-06-19-09-POL-400X-PM-9
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Date of image capture
 
|| 06/19/09
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Microscopist
 
|| L. Crawford
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Microscope
 
|| Zeiss Axioplan
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Mounting agent and RI
 
|| RI: permount 1.515
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Lumen type
 
|| lumen not apparent
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Fiber size
 
|| narrow fiber diameter
 
|}
 
|}
 
{|
 
|[[FILE:159862aa1b09b6a87183be8e12f2b70e.jpg|300px]]
 
Jute-006-06-19-09-POL-FOR-400X-PM-9
 
||
 
{| Class="wikitable" border="1" style="border-collapse:collapse;"
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Accession Number
 
|| Jute
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Title
 
|| Jute
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Processing treatment
 
|| commercial processing
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Image Identification information
 
|| Jute-006-06-19-09-POL-FOR-400X-PM-9
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Date of image capture
 
|| 06/19/09
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Microscopist
 
|| L. Crawford
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Microscope
 
|| Zeiss Axioplan
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Mounting agent and RI
 
|| RI: permount 1.515
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Lumen type
 
|| lumen not apparent
 
|-
 
!scope="row" style="text-align:left;" | Fiber size
 
|| narrow fiber diameter
 
|}
 
|}
 
  
[[Category:FRIL]]
+
Long [[bast fiber|bast fibers]] obtained from the stems of linden plants, ''Corchorus capsularis'' (white jute) or ''Corchorus olitorius'' (Tossa jute). Jute probably originated in the Mediterranean region and was taken to India and southeast Asia where it flourished. Jute has been used by man since prehistoric times. The pale brown fibers are soft, lustrous, and coarse ranging in length from 4 to 10 feet. Microscopically, the fibers exhibit irregular, long cells with a visible lumen. Jute is composed of [[cellulose]] (69%), [[lignin]] (18-20%) with some [[Anhydride|uronic anhydride]] (4.5%). The brittle fibers are used to produce a thread called hessian. Jute becomes so weak when wet that a thin twine can be broken by hand. It turns brown and degrades with time, [[solar radiation|sunlight]], [[water]], [[acid|acids]], [[alkali|alkalis]], and [[bleaching agent|bleach]]. Jute is used to make sackcloth, [[burlap|burlap cloth]], [[gunnysack|gunnysacks]], [[twine]], [[paper]], and [[carpet backing]]. It was also used to make brown paper in Europe in the mid-19th century.
[[Category: FRIL: Plant Fibers]]
+
 
 +
* See also [[Brazilian jute]], [[paco-paco]], [[pita fiber|pita]], and [[curana]].
 +
* For jute fiber identification, see http://cameo.mfa.org/wiki/Category:FRIL:_Jute
 +
[[File:DT 7-13-2004 Jute facing in progress.jpg|thumb|Jute facing in progress]]
 +
 
 +
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 +
 
 +
''Corchorus capsularis'';  juta (It., Port.); Huang-ma (Chin.); Jutefaser (Deut.); yute (Esp.);  jute (Ned); Tossa jute; white jute; Indian jute; hessian; Bengal hemp; Calcutta hemp; allyott;
 +
== Risks ==
 +
 
 +
Combustible. Poor resistance to sunlight, microorganisms and insects. Deteriorates rapidly when wet.
 +
== Physical and Chemical Properties ==
 +
 
 +
Resistant to alkalis and dilute acids.  Degraded by concentrated acids.   
 +
 
 +
Fiber length = 1.5-3.0 m; Fiber width = 7-18 microns; cross section = polygonal with 5 or 6 sides. Moisture regain = 13.75%;  Elongation = 1.7% (dry);  Striations tend to be fine and often stop in the middle of the fiber;  Fibers often are found in bundles.  Density = 1.5
 +
 
 +
[[File:DT 4-05-2004 Completed jute facing.jpg|thumb|Completed jute facing]]
 +
Paper fiber type: Non-woody/bast. Using transmitted light microscopy, fibers appear short and narrow with thick walls. Dislocations are present but faint. The ends of fibers can be spoon-shaped with widened lumen. Appearance with [[Graff "C" stain]]: Orange-red, but greys with bleaching. Average dimensions of fibers: length, 2mm, width 20μm. Common pulping method: [[soda process|soda]].
 +
[[File:49 jute 200X.jpg|thumb|Jute]]
 +
 
 +
== Comparisons ==
 +
 
 +
[[media:download_file_153.pdf|Properties of Natural Fibers]]
 +
[[File:1.21.2005 04-Facing removed.jpg|thumb|Facing removed
 +
[[File:Jute40x.jpg|thumb|Jute fibers stained with Graff "C" stain
 +
 
 +
== Physical and Chemical Properties ==
 +
* D. Catling, J. Grayson, ''Identification of Vegetable Fibres'', Archetype Publications, London, 1998.
 +
* G.Cook, ''Handbook of Textile Fibres:I. Natural Fibres'', 5th edition, Merrow Publishing Co., Durham, England, 1984.
 +
* T.Collings, D. Miller, 'The Identification of Oriental Paper Fibers' ''The Paper Conservator'', vol 3, 1978.
 +
 
 +
* Hoechst Celanese Corporation, ''Dictionary of Fiber & Textile Technology'' (older version called Man-made Fiber and Textile Dictionary, 1965), Hoechst Celanese Corporation, Charlotte NC, 1990
 +
 
 +
* Marja-Sisko Ilvessalo-Pfäffli. ''Fiber Atlas: Identification of Papermaking Fibers'' (Springer Series in Wood Science). Springer, 1995.
 +
 
 +
* Rosalie Rosso King, ''Textile Identification, Conservation, and Preservation'', Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, NJ, 1985
 +
 
 +
* Marjory L. Joseph, ''Introductory Textile Science'', Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Fort Worth, TX, 1986
 +
 
 +
* R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, ''Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia'', Dover Publications, New York, 1966
 +
 
 +
* Reed Kay, ''The Painter's Guide To Studio Methods and Materials'', Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1983
 +
 
 +
* Henry Hodges, ''Artifacts: An Introduction to Early Materials and Technology'', Ronald P. Frye, Kingston, Canada, 1988
 +
 
 +
* A.Lucas, J.R.Harris, ''Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries'', Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd., London, 4th edition, 1962
 +
 
 +
* ''Identification of Textile Materials'', The Textile Institute, Manchester, England, 1985
 +
 
 +
* ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', http://www.britannica.com  Comment: "jute" [Accessed October 18, 2001].-
 +
 
 +
* Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jute (Accessed Mar. 20, 2006)
 +
 
 +
* Matt Roberts, Don Etherington, ''Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books: a Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology'', U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1982
 +
 
 +
* G.S.Brady, ''Materials Handbook'', McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971  Comment: p. 426
 +
 
 +
* Book and Paper Group, ''Paper Conservation Catalog'', AIC, 1984, 1989
 +
 
 +
* Richard S. Lewis, ''Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary'', Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 10th ed., 1993
 +
 
 +
* Walter Rantanen. "Fiber ID Course." Integrated Paper Services. June 2013. Lecture.
 +
 
 +
* Random House, ''Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language'', Grammercy Book, New York, 1997
 +
 
 +
* ''The American Heritage Dictionary'' or ''Encarta'', via Microsoft Bookshelf 98, Microsoft Corp., 1998
 +
 
 +
* Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabulary/aat/, J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 2000
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Materials database]]

Latest revision as of 11:43, 29 October 2020

Asian fabric
MFA#34.1312

Description

Long bast fibers obtained from the stems of linden plants, Corchorus capsularis (white jute) or Corchorus olitorius (Tossa jute). Jute probably originated in the Mediterranean region and was taken to India and southeast Asia where it flourished. Jute has been used by man since prehistoric times. The pale brown fibers are soft, lustrous, and coarse ranging in length from 4 to 10 feet. Microscopically, the fibers exhibit irregular, long cells with a visible lumen. Jute is composed of Cellulose (69%), Lignin (18-20%) with some uronic anhydride (4.5%). The brittle fibers are used to produce a thread called hessian. Jute becomes so weak when wet that a thin twine can be broken by hand. It turns brown and degrades with time, sunlight, Water, acids, alkalis, and bleach. Jute is used to make sackcloth, burlap cloth, gunnysacks, Twine, Paper, and Carpet backing. It was also used to make brown paper in Europe in the mid-19th century.

Jute facing in progress

Synonyms and Related Terms

Corchorus capsularis; juta (It., Port.); Huang-ma (Chin.); Jutefaser (Deut.); yute (Esp.); jute (Ned); Tossa jute; white jute; Indian jute; hessian; Bengal hemp; Calcutta hemp; allyott;

Risks

Combustible. Poor resistance to sunlight, microorganisms and insects. Deteriorates rapidly when wet.

Physical and Chemical Properties

Resistant to alkalis and dilute acids. Degraded by concentrated acids.

Fiber length = 1.5-3.0 m; Fiber width = 7-18 microns; cross section = polygonal with 5 or 6 sides. Moisture regain = 13.75%; Elongation = 1.7% (dry); Striations tend to be fine and often stop in the middle of the fiber; Fibers often are found in bundles. Density = 1.5

Completed jute facing

Paper fiber type: Non-woody/bast. Using transmitted light microscopy, fibers appear short and narrow with thick walls. Dislocations are present but faint. The ends of fibers can be spoon-shaped with widened lumen. Appearance with Graff "C" stain: Orange-red, but greys with bleaching. Average dimensions of fibers: length, 2mm, width 20μm. Common pulping method: soda.

Jute

Comparisons

Properties of Natural Fibers [[File:1.21.2005 04-Facing removed.jpg|thumb|Facing removed [[File:Jute40x.jpg|thumb|Jute fibers stained with Graff "C" stain

Physical and Chemical Properties

  • D. Catling, J. Grayson, Identification of Vegetable Fibres, Archetype Publications, London, 1998.
  • G.Cook, Handbook of Textile Fibres:I. Natural Fibres, 5th edition, Merrow Publishing Co., Durham, England, 1984.
  • T.Collings, D. Miller, 'The Identification of Oriental Paper Fibers' The Paper Conservator, vol 3, 1978.
  • Hoechst Celanese Corporation, Dictionary of Fiber & Textile Technology (older version called Man-made Fiber and Textile Dictionary, 1965), Hoechst Celanese Corporation, Charlotte NC, 1990
  • Marja-Sisko Ilvessalo-Pfäffli. Fiber Atlas: Identification of Papermaking Fibers (Springer Series in Wood Science). Springer, 1995.
  • Rosalie Rosso King, Textile Identification, Conservation, and Preservation, Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, NJ, 1985
  • Marjory L. Joseph, Introductory Textile Science, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Fort Worth, TX, 1986
  • R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia, Dover Publications, New York, 1966
  • Reed Kay, The Painter's Guide To Studio Methods and Materials, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1983
  • Henry Hodges, Artifacts: An Introduction to Early Materials and Technology, Ronald P. Frye, Kingston, Canada, 1988
  • A.Lucas, J.R.Harris, Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries, Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd., London, 4th edition, 1962
  • Identification of Textile Materials, The Textile Institute, Manchester, England, 1985
  • Matt Roberts, Don Etherington, Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books: a Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1982
  • G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 426
  • Book and Paper Group, Paper Conservation Catalog, AIC, 1984, 1989
  • Richard S. Lewis, Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 10th ed., 1993
  • Walter Rantanen. "Fiber ID Course." Integrated Paper Services. June 2013. Lecture.
  • Random House, Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, Grammercy Book, New York, 1997
  • The American Heritage Dictionary or Encarta, via Microsoft Bookshelf 98, Microsoft Corp., 1998