Difference between revisions of "Liquidambar"

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[[File:1994.44-SC3181.jpg|thumb|Kast with projecting cornice<br>MFA# 1994.44]]
 
== Description ==
 
== Description ==
 
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[[File:Sweetgumf5.jpg|thumb|American sweetgum  ''Liquidambar styraciflua'']]
Any of several deciduous trees of the genus ''Liquidambar'', such as the American sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and the Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis). Liquidamber trees are primarily ornamental producing bright red leaves in the fall. The reddish-brown heartwood from the liquidamber trees is sold as red gum wood. It is valued for furniture and small decorative items. The resin from liquidambar trees ([http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=storax storax]) has been used in perfumes and embalming.
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Any of several deciduous trees of the genus ''Liquidambar'', such as the American sweetgum (''Liquidambar styraciflua'') and the Oriental sweetgum (''Liquidambar orientalis''). Liquidamber trees are primarily ornamental producing bright red, star shaped five-pointed leaves in the fall. The common hardwood occurs from Connecticut through Central America.  Liquidambar trees produce a reddish-brown heartwood that is commonly sold as red gum wood. The heavy wood is valued for furniture, boxes, crates, millwork and small decorative items. It is readily dyed black and used as a substitute for ebony. The resin from liquidambar trees ([[Storax (resin)|storax]]) has been used in perfumes and embalming.
  
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
  
liquidamber (sp); American sweetgum (''Liquidambar styraciflua''); Oriental sweetgum (''Liquidambar orientalis''); copalme d'Amrique (Fr.); liquidambar (Fr., It.); storax; gum wood; sweet gum; red gum; satin walnut
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liquidamber (sp); American sweetgum (''Liquidambar styraciflua''); Oriental sweetgum (''Liquidambar orientalis''); copalme d'Amérique (Fr.); liquidambar (Fr., It.); storax; American storax; hazel pine; bilsted; gum wood; sweet gum; redgum; satin walnut; alligatorwood; sweetgum
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[[File:lstyraciflualeaf3.jpg|thumb|American sweetgum ''Liquidambar styraciflua'']]
  
[[File:lstyraciflualeaf3.jpg|thumb|American sweetgum
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== Risks ==
  
''Liquidambar styraciflua'']]
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Susceptible too shrinkage and warping
== Other Properties ==
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== Physical and Chemical Properties ==
  
 
Medium tree growing to 25 m with straight trunk and pyramidal crown.  Bark=gray-brown with irregular furrows and rounded ridges.  Leaves=star-like with palmate veins and 5 to 7 lobes (10-15 cm)  Fruit=spiny gumballs containing 2 seeds, maturing in fall.   
 
Medium tree growing to 25 m with straight trunk and pyramidal crown.  Bark=gray-brown with irregular furrows and rounded ridges.  Leaves=star-like with palmate veins and 5 to 7 lobes (10-15 cm)  Fruit=spiny gumballs containing 2 seeds, maturing in fall.   
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Heartwood contains dark streaks with tangential and radial cuts.
 
Heartwood contains dark streaks with tangential and radial cuts.
  
== Hazards and Safety ==
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Paper fiber type: hardwood, diffuse porous. Using transmitted light microscopy, pulp is identified by numerous very long vessels with minimal scalariform or opposite pitting. Perforations are scalariform with 15-25 thin, branched bars.Tails of vessels have spirals. Fiber tracheids are common. Appearance with [[Graff "C" stain]]: dark blue, but varies with bleaching. Average dimensions of fibers: length 1.7mm, 20-40μm wide. Common pulping method: [[kraft process|kraft]].
  
Susceptible too shrinkage and warping
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== Working Properties ==
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Liquidambar trees produc a bright reddish brown wood that is heavy, straight, satiny, and close-grained.  The wood polishes well but is not strong,can warp badly and decay rapidly outdoors.
  
 
== Additional Images ==
 
== Additional Images ==
  
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
File:Sweetgumf5.jpg|American sweetgum  ''Liquidambar styraciflua''
 
 
File:Fig.red_gum.jpg|Figured red gum  (''Liquidambar styraciflua'')
 
File:Fig.red_gum.jpg|Figured red gum  (''Liquidambar styraciflua'')
 
File:34_RedGum.jpg|Red Gum  (''Liquidambar styraciflua'')
 
File:34_RedGum.jpg|Red Gum  (''Liquidambar styraciflua'')
 
File:35_SapGum.jpg|Sap Gum  (''Liquidambar styraciflua'')
 
File:35_SapGum.jpg|Sap Gum  (''Liquidambar styraciflua'')
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Redgum 40x.jpg|Red gum paper pulp stained with Graff "C" stain
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Redgum 10x.jpg|Red gum paper pulp stained with Graff "C" stain
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
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==Resources and Citations==
  
== Authority ==
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* R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, ''Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia'', Dover Publications, New York, 1966
  
* R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, ''Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia'', Dover Publications, New York, 1966
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* A.Lucas, J.R.Harris, ''Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries'', Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd., London, 4th edition, 1962
  
* A.Lucas, J.R.Harris, A.Lucas, J.R.Harris, ''Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries'', Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd., London, 4th edition, 1962
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* ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', http://www.britannica.com  Comment: "Sweet Gum." Accessed: 21 May 2004.
  
* ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', http://www.britannica.com  Comment: "Sweet Gum." Encyclopdia Britannica. 2004.  Encyclopdia Britannica Premium Service.  21 May 2004  .
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* Virginia Tech Dendrology website at www.fw.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/main.htm (accessed Oct. 8, 2005)
  
* Website address 1, Website address 1  Comment: Virginia Tech Dendrology website at www.fw.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/main.htm (accessed Oct. 8, 2005)
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* Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Sweetgum (Accessed Oct. 8, 2005)
  
* Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, at http://www.wikipedia.com  Comment: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Sweetgum (Accessed Oct. 8, 2005)
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* R.Gale, P.Gasson, N.Hepper, G.Killen, "Wood" in ''Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology'', P.Nicholson, I.Shaw (eds.), Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 334-371.
  
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* Marja-Sisko Ilvessalo-Pfäffli. ''Fiber Atlas: Identification of Papermaking Fibers'' (Springer Series in Wood Science). Springer, 1995.
  
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* Walter Rantanen. "Fiber ID Course." Integrated Paper Services. June 2013. Lecture.
  
 
[[Category:Materials database]]
 
[[Category:Materials database]]

Latest revision as of 09:57, 15 October 2020

Kast with projecting cornice
MFA# 1994.44

Description

American sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua

Any of several deciduous trees of the genus Liquidambar, such as the American sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and the Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis). Liquidamber trees are primarily ornamental producing bright red, star shaped five-pointed leaves in the fall. The common hardwood occurs from Connecticut through Central America. Liquidambar trees produce a reddish-brown heartwood that is commonly sold as red gum wood. The heavy wood is valued for furniture, boxes, crates, millwork and small decorative items. It is readily dyed black and used as a substitute for ebony. The resin from liquidambar trees (storax) has been used in perfumes and embalming.

Synonyms and Related Terms

liquidamber (sp); American sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua); Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis); copalme d'Amérique (Fr.); liquidambar (Fr., It.); storax; American storax; hazel pine; bilsted; gum wood; sweet gum; redgum; satin walnut; alligatorwood; sweetgum

American sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua

Risks

Susceptible too shrinkage and warping

Physical and Chemical Properties

Medium tree growing to 25 m with straight trunk and pyramidal crown. Bark=gray-brown with irregular furrows and rounded ridges. Leaves=star-like with palmate veins and 5 to 7 lobes (10-15 cm) Fruit=spiny gumballs containing 2 seeds, maturing in fall.

Wood has small pores. Indistinct growth rings.

Heartwood contains dark streaks with tangential and radial cuts.

Paper fiber type: hardwood, diffuse porous. Using transmitted light microscopy, pulp is identified by numerous very long vessels with minimal scalariform or opposite pitting. Perforations are scalariform with 15-25 thin, branched bars.Tails of vessels have spirals. Fiber tracheids are common. Appearance with Graff "C" stain: dark blue, but varies with bleaching. Average dimensions of fibers: length 1.7mm, 20-40μm wide. Common pulping method: kraft.

Working Properties

Liquidambar trees produc a bright reddish brown wood that is heavy, straight, satiny, and close-grained. The wood polishes well but is not strong,can warp badly and decay rapidly outdoors.

Additional Images

Resources and Citations

  • R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia, Dover Publications, New York, 1966
  • A.Lucas, J.R.Harris, Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries, Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd., London, 4th edition, 1962
  • Virginia Tech Dendrology website at www.fw.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/main.htm (accessed Oct. 8, 2005)
  • R.Gale, P.Gasson, N.Hepper, G.Killen, "Wood" in Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology, P.Nicholson, I.Shaw (eds.), Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 334-371.
  • Marja-Sisko Ilvessalo-Pfäffli. Fiber Atlas: Identification of Papermaking Fibers (Springer Series in Wood Science). Springer, 1995.
  • Walter Rantanen. "Fiber ID Course." Integrated Paper Services. June 2013. Lecture.

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