A planographic printing process developed in Germany in the 1790’s. The technique relies on the tendency of water and oil to repel each other. Traditionally, a design is made on a lithograph stone with a lithograph crayon. The stone is wet with water. Ink is applied to the stone with a roller. The ink sticks where the crayon has been applied, and not where the stone is wet. Images are printed from the stone onto paper. 20th century developments in lithography allowed greater freedom for artists to make designs in tusche or to use surfaces such as metal and plastic.
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Lithography's First Half Century: the Age of Goya and Delacroix. 1996.
Bamber Gascoigne, How to identify Prints. New York: 1986.
Richard Benson, The Printed Picture. New York: 2008.