Difference between revisions of "Polyurethane"

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== Description ==
 
== Description ==
  
A family of polymers made by a condensation reaction of an organic isocyanate with a compound containing a hydroxyl group, such as glycol. Polymers of this type ('''ester type''') were first made in 1937 by Otto Bayer at I.G.Farben. During W.W.II, Germany made brush [[bristle|bristles]] and filtration fabrics from Perlon U, an early polyurethane. In the 1950s another type of polyurethane using an ether starting compound ('''ether type''') was used to produce elastomeric polyurethane fiber called [[Spandex fiber|spandex]]. Spandex has elastic characteristics similar to [[natural rubber]]. In addition to fibers, elastomeric polyurethanes are used for [[sealant |sealants]], [[adhesive| adhesives]], [[film| films]], and automobile bumpers. Polyurethanes can be rigid or soft, [[thermoset| thermosetting]] or [[thermoplastic]]. Additionally, they react with isocyanates to produce a foamed resin. Polyurethane resins are also used as [[coating |coatings]] where they provide excellent [[hardness (solids)|hardness]], [[gloss]], and resistance to [[weathering]], [[abrasion]], [[acid|acids]], and [[alkali |alkalis]].  
+
A family of polymers made by a condensation reaction of an organic isocyanate with a compound containing a hydroxyl group, such as glycol. Polymers of this type ('''ester type''') were first made in 1937 by Otto Bayer at I.G.Farben. During W.W.II, Germany made brush [[bristle|bristles]] and filtration fabrics from Perlon U, an early polyurethane. In the 1950s another type of polyurethane using an ether starting compound ('''ether type''') was used to produce elastomeric polyurethane fiber called [[Spandex fiber|spandex]] or elastane. Spandex has elastic characteristics similar to [[natural rubber]]. Since the 1980s, water-blown flexible polyurethane foams were made for seals and gaskets In the 90s, do to the elimination of halogen blowing agents, polyurethane foaming techniques were expanded to insulation materials, cushions and packaging.  As solvent based liquids and solids, polyurethanes are used as [[sealant |sealants]], [[adhesive| adhesives]], [[film| films]], shopping carts, and automobile bumpers. Polyurethanes can be rigid or soft, [[thermoset| thermosetting]] or [[thermoplastic]]. Additionally, they react with isocyanates to produce a foamed resin. Polyurethane resins are also used as [[coating |coatings]] where they provide excellent [[hardness (solids)|hardness]], [[gloss]], and resistance to [[weathering]], [[abrasion]], [[acid|acids]], and [[alkali |alkalis]].  
  
 
{| class="wikitable"  
 
{| class="wikitable"  
|+Table of Polyurethane variations and their Characteristics
+
|+Table of Polyurethane Variations and their Characteristics
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Types!!Properties!!Forms!!Characteristics!!Uses
 
! Types!!Properties!!Forms!!Characteristics!!Uses
 
|-
 
|-
|Poly'''ether''' urethane|| thermoset || flexible open cells || lightweight, resistant to water, allows vapor penetration, larger bubbles, less expensive||speaker foam, aquarium filters, patio cushions, foam padding, mattresses, flotation devices
+
|Poly'''ether''' urethane|| thermoset || flexible open cells || lightweight, resistant to water, allows vapor penetration, larger bubbles, slightly more flexible,less expensive||speaker foam, aquarium filters, patio cushions, foam padding, mattresses, flotation devices, Dryfast foam
 
|-
 
|-
|Poly'''ester''' urethane|| thermoset || flexible open cells || lightweight, resistant to solvents, allows vapor penetration, smaller bubbles||packing foam, insulation, soundproofing, shock absorption, pink anti-static foam, mops, sponges
+
|Poly'''ester''' urethane|| thermoset || flexible open cells || lightweight, resistant to solvents, allows vapor penetration, smaller bubbles, slightly more rigid||packing foam, insulation, soundproofing, shock absorption, pink anti-static foam, mops, sponges
 
|-
 
|-
|Poly'''ether''' urethane|| thermoset || rigid closed cells || dense, resistant to water, less expensive|| thermal and moisture insulation, vapor barriers, tool making, wood replacement
+
|Poly'''ether''' urethane|| thermoset || rigid closed cells || dense, resistant to water, less expensive|| thermal and moisture insulation, vapor barrier, tool making, wood replacement
 
|-
 
|-
|Poly'''ester''' urethane|| thermoset || rigid closed cells || dense, resistant to solvents||thermal and moisture insulation, vapor barriers, tool making, wood replacement
+
|Poly'''ester''' urethane|| thermoset || rigid closed cells || dense, resistant to solvents||thermal, vapor barrier, tool making, wood replacement
 
|-
 
|-
|Poly'''ether''' urethane|| thermoplastic (PUR) || soft to rigid || textiles, upholstery, elastane
+
|Poly'''ether''' urethane|| thermoplastic (TPU) || soft to rigid || good resistance to abrasion, low temperature, moisture, and microbes||textiles, upholstery, elastane, wire coverings, hoses, films, laminates
 
|-
 
|-
|Poly'''ester''' urethane|| thermoplastic (PUR) || soft to rigid || skate wheels, safety helmets
+
|Poly'''ester''' urethane|| thermoplastic (TPU) || soft to rigid ||good resistance to abrasion, solvents, light, and temperature|| skate wheels, safety helmets, power tools, medical devices, films, hoses, laminates, coatings
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
  
PUR; poliuretano (Esp.); polyuréthane (Fr.); poliuretano (It.); poliuretano (Port.); spandex; elastane  
+
PUR; PU: poliuretano (Esp.); polyuréthane (Fr.); poliuretano (It.); poliuretano (Port.); spandex; elastane  
  
 
Examples: Perlon® U [Ger.]; Lycra® [DuPont];
 
Examples: Perlon® U [Ger.]; Lycra® [DuPont];
 
+
[[File:Polyurethane chair.jpg|thumb|20x|Polyurethane chair<br>MFA# 1996.111]]
== Applications ==
 
  
 
== Personal Risks ==
 
== Personal Risks ==
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Urethane burns with a bright flame producing a sharp odor and toxic fumes.   
 
Urethane burns with a bright flame producing a sharp odor and toxic fumes.   
  
Fischer Fixing Systems: [[https://content.fischer.de/cbfiles/fischer/zulassungen/tdb_01_pur_f_%23sen_%23aip_%23v3.pdf| Safety Data Sheet]]
+
Polymer Plastics: [[https://www.polymerplastics.com/images/msds_sheets/Polyurethane.pdf Safety Data Sheet]]
[[File:Polyurethane chair.jpg|thumb|Polyurethane chair<br>MFA# 1996.111]]
+
[[[SliderGallery rightalign|aaiCARDIO.jpg~FTIR|aaiPU-85.jpg~FTIR]]]
 +
 
 
== Collection Risks ==
 
== Collection Risks ==
[[[SliderGallery rightalign|aaiCARDIO.jpg~FTIR|aaiPU-85.jpg~FTIR]]]
 
Potential degradation products are hydrogen cyanide and ammonia. 
 
  
Polyether type urethanes are very susceptible to light degradation.   
+
* Potential degradation products are hydrogen cyanide and ammonia. 
 +
* Polyether type urethanes are very susceptible to light degradation.   
 +
* Polyester type urethanes are very susceptible to degradation at high humidities.
 +
* Polyurethane foams can yellow, become brittle and crumble.
 +
* Chlorine bleach may cause degradation.
 +
 
 +
Hydrolysis of polyester urethane foams can lead to loss of the structural support given by this material.  Oxidation of polyether urethane foams is the primary deterioration method. (Lattuati-Derieux, 2011)
  
Polyester type urethanes are very susceptible to degradation at high humidities.
 
  
Polyurethane foams can yellow, become brittle and crumble.
+
'''Links to Oddy Test results posted on AIC Wiki Materials Database Pages for individual materials below'''
  
Chlorine bleach may cause degradation.
+
*[http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Adhesives_and_Tapes#Polyurethane0001 water-based Polyurethane] tested in 2003
  
 
== Physical and Chemical Properties ==
 
== Physical and Chemical Properties ==
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Spot test for detection: dimethyl amino benzaldehyde in glacial acetic acid - positive reaction gives bright yellow color (Roff et al 1971)
 
Spot test for detection: dimethyl amino benzaldehyde in glacial acetic acid - positive reaction gives bright yellow color (Roff et al 1971)
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
! scope="row"| CAS
 
| 9009-54-5
 
|}
 
  
 
== Working Properties ==
 
== Working Properties ==
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== Additional Information ==
 
== Additional Information ==
  
* W.J.Roff, J.R.Scott, J.Pacitti (compilers) ''Handbook of Common Polymers:Fibres, Gilms, Plastics and Rubber'' Cleveland: CRC Press, Butterworth &amp; Co., 1971.
 
 
'''Links to Oddy Test results posted on AIC Wiki Materials Database Pages for individual materials below'''
 
 
[http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Exhibition_Adhesives_and_Tapes#Polyurethane0001 water-based Polyurethane] tested in 2003
 
  
 
== Comparisons ==
 
== Comparisons ==
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[[media:download_file_296.pdf|General Characteristics of Polymers]]
 
[[media:download_file_296.pdf|General Characteristics of Polymers]]
  
== Sources Checked for Data in Record ==
+
== Resources and Citations ==
 +
* Lattuati-Derieux, A.; Thao-Heu, S.; Lavédrine, B. “Assessment of the degradation of polyurethane foams after artificial and natural ageing by using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry” Journal of Chromatography A, 1218(28) 2011, 4498-4508. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2011.05.013
 +
 
 
* Contributions: Molly McGath and Thea van Oossten, AIC Plastics Panel, 2020.
 
* Contributions: Molly McGath and Thea van Oossten, AIC Plastics Panel, 2020.
  
* https://www.thefoamfactory.com/blog/index.php/ether-and-ester-based-polyurethane-foam-characteristics-differences-and-uses ) Accessed July 2020)
+
* The Foam Factory at https://www.thefoamfactory.com/blog/index.php/ether-and-ester-based-polyurethane-foam-characteristics-differences-and-uses (Accessed July 2020)
  
 
* W.J.Roff, J.R.Scott, J.Pacitti (compilers) ''Handbook of Common Polymers:Fibres, Gilms, Plastics and Rubber'' Cleveland: CRC Press, Butterworth &amp; Co., 1971.
 
* W.J.Roff, J.R.Scott, J.Pacitti (compilers) ''Handbook of Common Polymers:Fibres, Gilms, Plastics and Rubber'' Cleveland: CRC Press, Butterworth &amp; Co., 1971.
Line 113: Line 107:
 
* Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabulary/aat/, J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 2000
 
* Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabulary/aat/, J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 2000
  
 +
*Coughlin, Mary. “Plastics” Preventive Conservation: Collection Storage, edited by Lisa Elkin and Christopher A. Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, Smithsonian Institution, The George Washington University Museum Studies Program, 2019. pp. 884-885. [https://spnhc.biowikifarm.net/w/media/c/c8/Ch53_Plastics_884-885_%282%29.pdf]
 +
 +
*Williams, Scott R. “Plastic Storage Products” Preventive Conservation: Collection Storage, edited by Lisa Elkin and Christopher A. Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, Smithsonian Institution, The George Washington University Museum Studies Program, 2019, pp. 753-780. [https://spnhc.biowikifarm.net/wiki/Storage_Materials:_Plastics]
  
  
 
[[Category:Materials database]]
 
[[Category:Materials database]]

Latest revision as of 12:57, 26 July 2020

L'Enquêteur
MFA# 1989.818

Description

A family of polymers made by a condensation reaction of an organic isocyanate with a compound containing a hydroxyl group, such as glycol. Polymers of this type (ester type) were first made in 1937 by Otto Bayer at I.G.Farben. During W.W.II, Germany made brush bristles and filtration fabrics from Perlon U, an early polyurethane. In the 1950s another type of polyurethane using an ether starting compound (ether type) was used to produce elastomeric polyurethane fiber called spandex or elastane. Spandex has elastic characteristics similar to Natural rubber. Since the 1980s, water-blown flexible polyurethane foams were made for seals and gaskets In the 90s, do to the elimination of halogen blowing agents, polyurethane foaming techniques were expanded to insulation materials, cushions and packaging. As solvent based liquids and solids, polyurethanes are used as sealants, adhesives, films, shopping carts, and automobile bumpers. Polyurethanes can be rigid or soft, thermosetting or Thermoplastic. Additionally, they react with isocyanates to produce a foamed resin. Polyurethane resins are also used as coatings where they provide excellent hardness, Gloss, and resistance to Weathering, Abrasion, acids, and alkalis.

Table of Polyurethane Variations and their Characteristics
Types Properties Forms Characteristics Uses
Polyether urethane thermoset flexible open cells lightweight, resistant to water, allows vapor penetration, larger bubbles, slightly more flexible,less expensive speaker foam, aquarium filters, patio cushions, foam padding, mattresses, flotation devices, Dryfast foam
Polyester urethane thermoset flexible open cells lightweight, resistant to solvents, allows vapor penetration, smaller bubbles, slightly more rigid packing foam, insulation, soundproofing, shock absorption, pink anti-static foam, mops, sponges
Polyether urethane thermoset rigid closed cells dense, resistant to water, less expensive thermal and moisture insulation, vapor barrier, tool making, wood replacement
Polyester urethane thermoset rigid closed cells dense, resistant to solvents thermal, vapor barrier, tool making, wood replacement
Polyether urethane thermoplastic (TPU) soft to rigid good resistance to abrasion, low temperature, moisture, and microbes textiles, upholstery, elastane, wire coverings, hoses, films, laminates
Polyester urethane thermoplastic (TPU) soft to rigid good resistance to abrasion, solvents, light, and temperature skate wheels, safety helmets, power tools, medical devices, films, hoses, laminates, coatings

Synonyms and Related Terms

PUR; PU: poliuretano (Esp.); polyuréthane (Fr.); poliuretano (It.); poliuretano (Port.); spandex; elastane

Examples: Perlon® U [Ger.]; Lycra® [DuPont];

Polyurethane chair
MFA# 1996.111

Personal Risks

Urethane burns with a bright flame producing a sharp odor and toxic fumes.

Polymer Plastics: [Safety Data Sheet]

FTIR

AaiCARDIO.jpg

FTIR

AaiPU-85.jpg


Collection Risks

  • Potential degradation products are hydrogen cyanide and ammonia.
  • Polyether type urethanes are very susceptible to light degradation.
  • Polyester type urethanes are very susceptible to degradation at high humidities.
  • Polyurethane foams can yellow, become brittle and crumble.
  • Chlorine bleach may cause degradation.

Hydrolysis of polyester urethane foams can lead to loss of the structural support given by this material. Oxidation of polyether urethane foams is the primary deterioration method. (Lattuati-Derieux, 2011)


Links to Oddy Test results posted on AIC Wiki Materials Database Pages for individual materials below

Physical and Chemical Properties

Coatings are resistant to weathering, abrasion, acids and alkalis.

Attacked by aromatic solvents, chlorinated solvents, ozone, and nitrogen oxides.

Spot test for detection: dimethyl amino benzaldehyde in glacial acetic acid - positive reaction gives bright yellow color (Roff et al 1971)

Working Properties

Additional Information

Comparisons

Properties of Synthetic Fibers

Physical Properties for Selected Thermoplastic Resins

General Characteristics of Polymers

Resources and Citations

  • Lattuati-Derieux, A.; Thao-Heu, S.; Lavédrine, B. “Assessment of the degradation of polyurethane foams after artificial and natural ageing by using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry” Journal of Chromatography A, 1218(28) 2011, 4498-4508. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2011.05.013
  • Contributions: Molly McGath and Thea van Oossten, AIC Plastics Panel, 2020.
  • W.J.Roff, J.R.Scott, J.Pacitti (compilers) Handbook of Common Polymers:Fibres, Gilms, Plastics and Rubber Cleveland: CRC Press, Butterworth & Co., 1971.
  • C&E News Aug 2004 - first developed by Otto Bayer in 1937.
  • Marjorie Shelley, The Care and Handling of Art Objects, The Metropolitan Museum, New York, 1987
  • Thomas C. Jester (ed.), Twentieth-Century Building Materials, McGraw-Hill Companies, Washington DC, 1995
  • Michael McCann, Artist Beware, Watson-Guptill Publications, New York City, 1979
  • Dictionary of Building Preservation, Ward Bucher, ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York City, 1996
  • Sharon Blank, An introduction to plastics and rubbers in collections, Studies in Conservation, 35, 53-63, 1990
  • M. Baker, E. McManus, 'History, Care and Handling of America's Spacesuits', JAIC, 31, 77-85, 1992
  • Theodore J. Reinhart, 'Glossary of Terms', Engineered Plastics, ASM International, 1988
  • Richard S. Lewis, Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 10th ed., 1993
  • The American Heritage Dictionary or Encarta, via Microsoft Bookshelf 98, Microsoft Corp., 1998
  • Website address: www.me.umist.ac.uk.historyp/
  • Coughlin, Mary. “Plastics” Preventive Conservation: Collection Storage, edited by Lisa Elkin and Christopher A. Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, Smithsonian Institution, The George Washington University Museum Studies Program, 2019. pp. 884-885. [1]
  • Williams, Scott R. “Plastic Storage Products” Preventive Conservation: Collection Storage, edited by Lisa Elkin and Christopher A. Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, Smithsonian Institution, The George Washington University Museum Studies Program, 2019, pp. 753-780. [2]