Difference between revisions of "Safflower: Ukiyo-e colorant"

From CAMEO
Jump to: navigation, search
Line 9: Line 9:
  
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
Safflower red lantern 06.809.png|Red lantern
+
Safflower red lantern 06.809.png|Red lantern (MFA 06.809)
 +
Safflower red 06.809 EEM.png|EEM
 +
Safflower red 06.809 FORS.png|FORS
 
Safflower red 06.809 XRF.png|XRF
 
Safflower red 06.809 XRF.png|XRF
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
Safflower pink 06.795.png|Pink tree
+
Safflower pink 06.795.png|Pink tree (MFA 06.795)
Safflower pink 06.795 XRF.png|XRF
+
Safflower pink 06.795 EEM.png|EEM of pink tree
 +
Safflower pink 06.795 FORS.png|FORS of pink tree
 +
Safflower pink 06.795 XRF.png|XRF of pink tree
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
Safflower light pink cloud 11.17586.png|Pink cloud
+
Safflower light pink cloud 11.17586.png|Pink cloud (MFA 11.17586)
 +
Safflower light pink 11.17586 EEM.png|EEM
 
Safflower light pink 11.17586 XRF.png|XRF
 
Safflower light pink 11.17586 XRF.png|XRF
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>

Revision as of 11:35, 16 October 2019

For ukiyo-e woodblock prints, Carthamus tinctorius (safflower) was the primary red and pink colorant used consistently for all of the time periods and printing methods.

Safflower - benibana The florets of Carthamus tinctorius (safflower) produce a wide range of colors from cherry red to pink (fig. 7). Native to northern India and the Near East, this popular dye plant was widely cultivated throughout Asia and Europe by the end of the 13th century. The florets are picked, then dried and crushed into a paste. The paste is washed with water to remove the non-lightfast yellow chromophors including several quinochalcones. The red colorant, primarily carthamin, is then extracted in an alkaline bath. The deepest reds are obtained through several initial washings to remove all of the water-soluble yellows.

Red regions containing safflower were usually seen as brightly fluorescence during the preliminary examination of the prints with a hand-held UV light. Thus, it was no surprise that the EEM fluorescence technique provided a unique and definitive pattern for safflower, even when it was visually observed in the print as a faded brown color. In addition to the fluorescence for the red chromophor, the pattern often contained an additional peak for the yellow chromophore that was supposedly removed in the preparation of the red colorant but often needed several washings for complete elimination.

The presence of this mixture throughout the history of color printing seems to indicate that the tone obtained by mixing dayflower blue and safflower was preferred over other possible mixtures of reds and blues to yield purple (for example indigo and madder).