Difference between revisions of "Silk"

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[[File:Italian dress 77.6.jpg|thumb|'''MFA Acc. #:''' 77.6]]
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[[File:Italian dress 77.6.jpg|thumb|Court Dress<br>MFA Acc. #: 77.6]]
 
 
 
== Description ==
 
== Description ==
 
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[[File:Silk 200x CP.POL.jpg|thumb|Silk fibers]]
 
A fine, lustrous natural fiber obtained from the catepillar cocoons of silk moths, such as the domesticated Bombyx mori. Silk moths are native to South and Southeast Asia as well as Northern China (e.g., Antheraea pernyi). According to legend, silk was discovered by Chinese Empress Si-Ling-Shi when a cocoon fell in her tea. China maintained a monopoly on the production of silk fabric for almost 3000 years. The worms were first cultivated in Japan about 195 CE and in Europe about 555 CE. Silk fibers contain a fibroin protein that can be decomposed with acid to form a mixture of amino acids: glycine (41.2 %), alanine (33.0%), serine (16.0 %), and tyrosine (11.4%) (Cook 1984). Microscopically, raw silk appears as two strands that are held together with sericin protein. The [[sericin|sericin]], or gum, is removed by boiling the fibers in soapy water or a dilute alkali. Longitudinal striations appear in the fibers due to wear. Silk readily absorbs soluble salts and is often treated with metal salts, such as tin phosphate/ sodium silicate or tin chloride, to increase its density. A moderately weighted silk contains about 25-50% salt. Weighted silks degrade more rapidly.  
 
A fine, lustrous natural fiber obtained from the catepillar cocoons of silk moths, such as the domesticated Bombyx mori. Silk moths are native to South and Southeast Asia as well as Northern China (e.g., Antheraea pernyi). According to legend, silk was discovered by Chinese Empress Si-Ling-Shi when a cocoon fell in her tea. China maintained a monopoly on the production of silk fabric for almost 3000 years. The worms were first cultivated in Japan about 195 CE and in Europe about 555 CE. Silk fibers contain a fibroin protein that can be decomposed with acid to form a mixture of amino acids: glycine (41.2 %), alanine (33.0%), serine (16.0 %), and tyrosine (11.4%) (Cook 1984). Microscopically, raw silk appears as two strands that are held together with sericin protein. The [[sericin|sericin]], or gum, is removed by boiling the fibers in soapy water or a dilute alkali. Longitudinal striations appear in the fibers due to wear. Silk readily absorbs soluble salts and is often treated with metal salts, such as tin phosphate/ sodium silicate or tin chloride, to increase its density. A moderately weighted silk contains about 25-50% salt. Weighted silks degrade more rapidly.  
 
* For silk fiber identification, see http://cameo.mfa.org/wiki/Category:FRIL:_Silk
 
* For silk fiber identification, see http://cameo.mfa.org/wiki/Category:FRIL:_Silk
 
See also [[wild%20silk|wild silk]].
 
See also [[wild%20silk|wild silk]].
 
[[File:Silk 200x CP.POL.jpg|thumb|Silk fibers]]
 
  
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
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File:25.550-CR7043-d1.jpg|Silk Patola<br>MFA Acc. #: 25.550]]
 
si (Chin.); soie (Fr.); silke (Dan., Sven.); Seide (Deut.); seda (Esp., Port.); zijde (Ned.); jedwab (Pol.);
 
si (Chin.); soie (Fr.); silke (Dan., Sven.); Seide (Deut.); seda (Esp., Port.); zijde (Ned.); jedwab (Pol.);
  
 
[[[SliderGallery rightalign|MFA- Silk.jpg~FTIR|silk370m.jpg~SEM|silk1000m.jpg~SEM]]]
 
[[[SliderGallery rightalign|MFA- Silk.jpg~FTIR|silk370m.jpg~SEM|silk1000m.jpg~SEM]]]
== Hazards and Safety ==
+
== Risks ==
  
 
Degraded by sunlight. Decomposed by strong acids.  Resistant to moths, bacteria and fungi. Susceptible to carpet beetles.
 
Degraded by sunlight. Decomposed by strong acids.  Resistant to moths, bacteria and fungi. Susceptible to carpet beetles.
== Other Properties ==
+
== Physical and Chemical Properties ==
  
 
Soluble in hot, strong alkali.  Damaged by weak alkali solutions (soap).  Unaffected by most organic solvents.   
 
Soluble in hot, strong alkali.  Damaged by weak alkali solutions (soap).  Unaffected by most organic solvents.   
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<gallery>
 
<gallery>
File:25.550-CR7043-d1.jpg|'''MFA Acc. #:''' 25.550]]
 
 
File:Silkworm_diag_wik.jpg|Silkworm
 
File:Silkworm_diag_wik.jpg|Silkworm
 
File:silk_cocoon_1.jpg|Silk cocoon  (''Bombyx mori'')
 
File:silk_cocoon_1.jpg|Silk cocoon  (''Bombyx mori'')

Revision as of 12:49, 3 September 2020

Court Dress
MFA Acc. #: 77.6

Description

Silk fibers

A fine, lustrous natural fiber obtained from the catepillar cocoons of silk moths, such as the domesticated Bombyx mori. Silk moths are native to South and Southeast Asia as well as Northern China (e.g., Antheraea pernyi). According to legend, silk was discovered by Chinese Empress Si-Ling-Shi when a cocoon fell in her tea. China maintained a monopoly on the production of silk fabric for almost 3000 years. The worms were first cultivated in Japan about 195 CE and in Europe about 555 CE. Silk fibers contain a fibroin protein that can be decomposed with acid to form a mixture of amino acids: glycine (41.2 %), alanine (33.0%), serine (16.0 %), and tyrosine (11.4%) (Cook 1984). Microscopically, raw silk appears as two strands that are held together with sericin protein. The Sericin, or gum, is removed by boiling the fibers in soapy water or a dilute alkali. Longitudinal striations appear in the fibers due to wear. Silk readily absorbs soluble salts and is often treated with metal salts, such as tin phosphate/ sodium silicate or tin chloride, to increase its density. A moderately weighted silk contains about 25-50% salt. Weighted silks degrade more rapidly.

See also Wild silk.

Synonyms and Related Terms

File:25.550-CR7043-d1.jpg|Silk Patola
MFA Acc. #: 25.550]] si (Chin.); soie (Fr.); silke (Dan., Sven.); Seide (Deut.); seda (Esp., Port.); zijde (Ned.); jedwab (Pol.);

FTIR

MFA- Silk.jpg

SEM

Silk1000m.jpg

Risks

Degraded by sunlight. Decomposed by strong acids. Resistant to moths, bacteria and fungi. Susceptible to carpet beetles.

Physical and Chemical Properties

Soluble in hot, strong alkali. Damaged by weak alkali solutions (soap). Unaffected by most organic solvents.

Silk burns readily with an unsteady flame. It smells like burnt hair. The ash is readily crumbled.

For Bombyx mori: Cross section is triangular. Filament length = 250-750 meters long. Moisture regain = 11%; Elongation = 20-25% (normal) and 30% (wet);

Melting Point 175 (dec)
Density 1.25-1.34

Comparisons

Properties of Natural Fibers

Additional Images

Resources and Citations

  • G.Cook, Handbook of Textile Fibres:I. Natural Fibres, 5th edition, Merrow Publishing Co., Durham, England, 1984.
  • M.Brooks, S.O'Conner, J.McDonnell "The Application of Low-energy X-radiography in the Examination and Investigation of Degraded Historic Silk Textiles" ICOM Preprints, Edinburgh, Vol. II, p.670-79, 1996.
  • Hoechst Celanese Corporation, Dictionary of Fiber & Textile Technology (older version called Man-made Fiber and Textile Dictionary, 1965), Hoechst Celanese Corporation, Charlotte NC, 1990
  • S.R.Trotman, E.R. Trotman, Textile Analysis, J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1932
  • Rosalie Rosso King, Textile Identification, Conservation, and Preservation, Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, NJ, 1985
  • Identification of Textile Materials, The Textile Institute, Manchester, England, 1985
  • The Dictionary of Art, Grove's Dictionaries Inc., New York, 1996 Comment: "silk"
  • Website address 1 Comment: www.fabrics.net
  • R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia, Dover Publications, New York, 1966
  • G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 721
  • Encyclopedia of Archaeology, Glyn E. Daniel, ed., Thomas Y. Crowell Co., New York, 1977
  • Hermann Kuhn, Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art and Antiquities, Butterworths, London, 1986

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