Difference between revisions of "Spruce"

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[[File:17.1939-SC14445.jpg|thumb|'''MFA Acc. #:''' 17.1939]]
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[[File:17.1939-SC14445.jpg|thumb|German organ<br>MFA #: 17.1939]]
 
== Description ==
 
== Description ==
  
Any of several trees from the ''Picea'' family native to North America. Spruce trees, in general, have light weight, soft wood with a straight, even grain. The strong wood is easily worked. It is used for musical instrument sounding boards, ladders, cabinets, boxes, [[paper%20pulp|paper pulp]], and [[rayon%20fiber|rayon]]. Examples include: black spruce (''P. mariana''), blue spruce (''P. pungens''), Engelmann spruce (''P. engelmannii''), red spruce (''P. rubens''), Sitka spruce (''P. sitchensis''), and white spruce (''P. glauca'').
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Any of several trees from the ''Picea'' family native to North America. Spruce trees, in general, have light weight, soft wood with a straight, even grain. The strong wood is easily worked. It is used for musical instrument sounding boards, ladders, cabinets, boxes, [[paper%20pulp|paper pulp]], and [[rayon%20fiber|rayon]].
  
 
[[File:17.2206-SC29680.jpg|thumb|'''MFA Acc. #:''' 17.2206]]
 
[[File:17.2206-SC29680.jpg|thumb|'''MFA Acc. #:''' 17.2206]]
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Eastern spruce; épicea (Fr.); Schwartztanne (Deut.); picea (Esp.); espruce (Port.); black spruce (''Picea mariana''); blue spruce (''Picea pungens''); Engelmann spruce (''Picea engelmannii''); red spruce (''Picea rubens''); Sitka spruce (''Picea sitchensi''); white spruce (''Picea glauca'')
 
Eastern spruce; épicea (Fr.); Schwartztanne (Deut.); picea (Esp.); espruce (Port.); black spruce (''Picea mariana''); blue spruce (''Picea pungens''); Engelmann spruce (''Picea engelmannii''); red spruce (''Picea rubens''); Sitka spruce (''Picea sitchensi''); white spruce (''Picea glauca'')
  
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== Physical and Chemical Properties ==
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
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| 23-44 ppcf
 
| 23-44 ppcf
 
|}
 
|}
==Other Properties==
 
  
 
Paper fiber type: Softwood. Using transmitted light microscopy, fibers are identified by the presence of very small, oval, piceoid ray parenchyma pits, 2-4 across.  May show cupressiod or taxodiod features. Ray tracheids are non-dentate. Appearance with [[Graff "C" stain]]: varies with pulping method . Average dimensions of fibers: length, 3.4mm width 3.1 μm. Common pulping method: [[kraft process|kraft]] and [[sulfite process|sulfite]]. It is difficult to distinguish spruce fibers from [[hemlock]] fibers in pulp.
 
Paper fiber type: Softwood. Using transmitted light microscopy, fibers are identified by the presence of very small, oval, piceoid ray parenchyma pits, 2-4 across.  May show cupressiod or taxodiod features. Ray tracheids are non-dentate. Appearance with [[Graff "C" stain]]: varies with pulping method . Average dimensions of fibers: length, 3.4mm width 3.1 μm. Common pulping method: [[kraft process|kraft]] and [[sulfite process|sulfite]]. It is difficult to distinguish spruce fibers from [[hemlock]] fibers in pulp.

Revision as of 13:53, 12 October 2020

German organ
MFA #: 17.1939

Description

Any of several trees from the Picea family native to North America. Spruce trees, in general, have light weight, soft wood with a straight, even grain. The strong wood is easily worked. It is used for musical instrument sounding boards, ladders, cabinets, boxes, Paper pulp, and rayon.

MFA Acc. #: 17.2206

Synonyms and Related Terms

Eastern spruce; épicea (Fr.); Schwartztanne (Deut.); picea (Esp.); espruce (Port.); black spruce (Picea mariana); blue spruce (Picea pungens); Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii); red spruce (Picea rubens); Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensi); white spruce (Picea glauca)

Physical and Chemical Properties

Density 23-44 ppcf

Paper fiber type: Softwood. Using transmitted light microscopy, fibers are identified by the presence of very small, oval, piceoid ray parenchyma pits, 2-4 across. May show cupressiod or taxodiod features. Ray tracheids are non-dentate. Appearance with Graff "C" stain: varies with pulping method . Average dimensions of fibers: length, 3.4mm width 3.1 μm. Common pulping method: kraft and sulfite. It is difficult to distinguish spruce fibers from Hemlock fibers in pulp.

FTIR(MFA)

Spruce resin.TIF


Additional Information

Schoch, W., Heller, I., Schweingruber, F.H., Kienast, F., 2004:Wood anatomy of central European Species: Common Spruce,Norway Spruce, Picea abies Karsten

Additional Images

Sources Checked for Data in Record

  • G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 758
  • F. H. Titmuss, Commercial Timbers of the World, The Technical Press Ltd., London, 1965 Comment: Picea glauca density = 23-33 ppcf
  • Dictionary of Building Preservation, Ward Bucher, ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York City, 1996
  • External source or communication Comment: Northern Pine Manufacturers: air-dry weight = 27pcf
  • Marja-Sisko Ilvessalo-Pfäffli. Fiber Atlas: Identification of Papermaking Fibers (Springer Series in Wood Science). Springer, 1995.
  • Walter Rantanen. "Fiber ID Course." Integrated Paper Services. June 2013. Lecture.
  • Edward Reich, Carlton J. Siegler, Consumer Goods: How to Know and Use Them, American Book Company, New York City, 1937
  • CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Robert Weast (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, v. 61, 1980 Comment: density=30-44 ppcf (0.48-0.70 g/cm3)

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