Any of several trees from the Picea family native to North America. Spruce trees, in general, have light weight, soft wood with a straight, even grain. The strong wood is easily worked. It is used for musical instrument sounding boards, ladders, cabinets, boxes, Paper pulp, and rayon.
Synonyms and Related Terms
Eastern spruce; épicea (Fr.); Schwartztanne (Deut.); picea (Esp.); espruce (Port.); black spruce (Picea mariana); blue spruce (Picea pungens); Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii); red spruce (Picea rubens); Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensi); white spruce (Picea glauca)
Physical and Chemical Properties
Paper fiber type: Softwood. Using transmitted light microscopy, fibers are identified by the presence of very small, oval, piceoid ray parenchyma pits, 2-4 across. May show cupressiod or taxodiod features. Ray tracheids are non-dentate. Appearance with Graff "C" stain: varies with pulping method . Average dimensions of fibers: length, 3.4mm width 3.1 μm. Common pulping method: kraft and sulfite. It is difficult to distinguish spruce fibers from Hemlock fibers in pulp.
Sources Checked for Data in Record
- G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 758
- F. H. Titmuss, Commercial Timbers of the World, The Technical Press Ltd., London, 1965 Comment: Picea glauca density = 23-33 ppcf
- Dictionary of Building Preservation, Ward Bucher, ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York City, 1996
- External source or communication Comment: Northern Pine Manufacturers: air-dry weight = 27pcf
- Marja-Sisko Ilvessalo-Pfäffli. Fiber Atlas: Identification of Papermaking Fibers (Springer Series in Wood Science). Springer, 1995.
- Walter Rantanen. "Fiber ID Course." Integrated Paper Services. June 2013. Lecture.
- Edward Reich, Carlton J. Siegler, Consumer Goods: How to Know and Use Them, American Book Company, New York City, 1937
- CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Robert Weast (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, v. 61, 1980 Comment: density=30-44 ppcf (0.48-0.70 g/cm3)