Difference between revisions of "X-ray"

From CAMEO
Jump to: navigation, search
Line 1: Line 1:
 
== Description ==
 
== Description ==
  
High energy radiation with very short wavelengths (0.001 - 10 nm). X-rays were accidentally discovered by W. Roentgen in 1895. They can pass through many solids, ionize gases, and expose photographic film. The depth of penetration of x-rays through a material depends on its density. A common use of x-rays in museums is to photograph density variations in composite materials, i.e. to examine painting pigments and sculpture structures. Radiographs for paper and other low density materials are collected with soft x-rays. These are very low energy, long wavelength x-rays produced by an x-ray tube set below 15 kilovolts. X-rays are used in analytical equipment (see [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=x-ray%20diffraction x-ray diffraction] and [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=x-ray%20fluorescence%20analysis x-ray fluorescence]) for the determination of molecular and elemental compositions.
+
High energy radiation(from some keV to 110 keV) with very short wavelengths (0.001 - 10 nm). X-rays were discovered by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen in 1895. They can pass through materials, ionize gases, and expose photographic film. X-rays can be produced by X-ray tubes associated with high voltage generators, or synchrotrons or radioactive sealed sourcesThe depth of penetration of x-rays through a material depends on there energy & of the atomic number & density of the material. The more frequent use of x-rays in museums consists in non destructive examination of artefacts like easel paintings, sculptures, ceramics, archaeological objects... by radiography. This permits to caracterise density variations in composite materials, to examine differences in painting pigments, to visualise sculpture structures ... Radiographs of paper and other low thickness & density materials are made with soft X-rays. X-rays are also used in analytical equipment (see [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=x-ray%20diffraction x-ray diffraction] and [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=x-ray%20fluorescence%20analysis x-ray fluorescence]) for the determination of cristalline structure and elemental compositions.
  
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
Line 9: Line 9:
 
== Hazards and Safety ==
 
== Hazards and Safety ==
  
Overexposure or cumulative exposure can damage or destroy cells and tissue structures.
+
Overexposure or cumulative exposure can damage or destroy cells and tissue structures & so can induce illnessrs like radiodermite, cancer,....
  
 
== Authority ==
 
== Authority ==

Revision as of 11:08, 7 August 2013

Description

High energy radiation(from some keV to 110 keV) with very short wavelengths (0.001 - 10 nm). X-rays were discovered by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen in 1895. They can pass through materials, ionize gases, and expose photographic film. X-rays can be produced by X-ray tubes associated with high voltage generators, or synchrotrons or radioactive sealed sourcesThe depth of penetration of x-rays through a material depends on there energy & of the atomic number & density of the material. The more frequent use of x-rays in museums consists in non destructive examination of artefacts like easel paintings, sculptures, ceramics, archaeological objects... by radiography. This permits to caracterise density variations in composite materials, to examine differences in painting pigments, to visualise sculpture structures ... Radiographs of paper and other low thickness & density materials are made with soft X-rays. X-rays are also used in analytical equipment (see x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence) for the determination of cristalline structure and elemental compositions.

Synonyms and Related Terms

x-rays; xray; x-radiation, Roentgen ray

Hazards and Safety

Overexposure or cumulative exposure can damage or destroy cells and tissue structures & so can induce illnessrs like radiodermite, cancer,....

Authority

  • G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971
  • G.G. Hawley, The Condensed Chemical Dictionary, Reinhold Publishing, New York, 6th ed., 1961

Retrieved from "http://cameo.mfa.org/index.php?title=X-ray&oldid=40201"