Gamboge: Ukiyo-e colorant
Gamboge 藤黄 (tōō): A yellow-orange gum-resin produced by several species of Garcinia tree found in India, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Ceylon. Gamboge was used as a yellow pigment as early as the 8th century in Asia and Japan. Gamboge is composed of a yellow resinous component (70–80%; morelloflavone) and a clear water-soluble Gum (20%). Gamboge is obtained scoring the trunks of trees of at least ten years of age in order to let the poisonous milky yellow resin drip into hollow bamboo canes. Once the resin has congealed, the bamboo is roasted over fire to evaporate remaining moisture. Then the bamboo is broken away to reveal rods of raw gamboge, which are then pulverized. Once pulverized, the color of gamboge is transformed from a dull to bright yellow.
Gamboge produces a transparent yellow which was frequently hand-painted on prints dating from the 1690's to the 1740's. After the introduction of full color printing, its use seems to decline perhaps because other yellows were easier to obtain and/or print and mix with other colorants.
For more information see: Gamboge
Examples of Gamboge in Ukiyo-e Prints
Gamboge does not fluoresce under UVA radiation and therefore does not produce a distinct pattern using Excitation Emission Matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. This, in itself is unique because of the possible yellow colorants analyzed, it is the only bright yellow colorant that not only does not fluoresce but also absorbs the fluorescence emitted by the paper. This negative indication can be sometimes used to assign the presence of gamboge.
Images of Gamboge
List of Prints
Below is a list of prints where gamboge was detected.
Pages in category "Gamboge: Ukiyo-e colorant"
The following 22 pages are in this category, out of 22 total.
- Harunobu, The Sake Cup, sheet 4 of the series Marriage in Brocade Prints, the Carriage of the Virtuous Woman, known as the Marriage series, 11.19475
- Harunobu, Young Couple with Bush Clover; Parody of the Musashi Plain Episode of Tales of Ise, 11.19454
- Harunobu, Young Man Playing a Shakuhachi, 06.480
- Harunobu, Young Man Playing a Shakuhachi, 11.21231
- Harunobu, Young Man Playing a Shakuhachi, 21.4536
- Harunobu, Young Man Playing a Shakuhachi, 21.4677
- Kiyomasu II, Actor Ogino Izaburô I as Yamagami Gennai, Acting in the Aragoto Style with the Sumikazura Wig, 11.13297
- Kiyomasu II, Actor Segawa Kikunojô I in Momo Chidori Musume Dôjô-ji, 06.423
- Kiyomasu II, Actors Segawa Kikunojô I as Yomogiu, Ichikawa Ebizô II as Tono no Hyôe, and Yamamoto Kyôzô as Kureha, 21.5459
- Kiyomasu II, Actors Tamazawa Saijirô as the Courtesan Chidori and Ichimura Manzô as Takigô Tôshichi; Calendar for 1744, 21.5455
- Kiyomasu II, The Arrival of the Elephant, 58.343
- Komatsuken, Courtesan Parading with Two Kamuro, 11.19711
- Komatsuken, Young Man as the Bodhisattva Monju, 11.30137
- Komatsuken, Young Woman as the Bodhisattva Fugen, 11.30136
- Masanobu, Handayû, a Courtesan (Tayû) of the Ichimoji-ya in Shimabara, Kyoto, Center Sheet of a Triptych, 11.19179
- Masanobu, Large Perspective View of the Interior of Echigo-ya in Suruga-chô, 11.13343
- Masanobu, Perspective Picture of a Triptych of the Three Evening Poems, by the Authentic Originator of Color Printing and Perspective Prints, 11.13344