Lead white: Ukiyo-e colorant
Lead white 鉛白 (enpaku): A white pigment composed of basic lead carbonate. Lead white has been prepared synthetically from Classical antiquity by exposing metallic Lead to Vinegar (Acetic acid) vapour. Lead white and red lead can discolor and darken when exposed to Hydrogen sulfide.
On a print the color white is usually unprinted paper, however, sometimes lead white was used to set apart fields of white from the paper's natural tone. More frequently, it has been found mixed with other colorants, in order to lighten a color or lend opacity. Most frequently, it appears to have been mixed with red lead to create a light pink color, often seen in wooden architectural elements. Sometimes lead white paint was spattered across the surface of a complete print in order to approximate the appearance of snow or sea spary. Darkening of lead white has been observed in areas where it was printed alone and in mixtures. It is often this discoloration or darkening that leads to its preliminary identification of its presence. Unlike red lead, it appears that printers did not intentionally initiate darkening of this color in order to create a special effect.
For more information see: Lead white
X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) is used to detect lead (Pb). When it is found in a white area or mixed with a colorant to lighten the color or to add opacity, it is an indication for the presence of lead white (2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2).
Images of Lead white
List of Prints
Below is a list of prints where lead white was detected.
Pages in category "Lead white: Ukiyo-e colorant"
The following 25 pages are in this category, out of 25 total.
- Buncho, Actor Matsumoto Kôshirô III as Soga no Gorô, 11.18480
- Bunchō, Actor Ichimura Uzaemon IX as Yoshiie, 34.333
- Bunchō, Actor Matsumoto Kôshirô III as Soga no Gorô, 11.18479
- Bunchō, Actor Matsumoto Kôshirô III as Soga no Gorô, 11.18480
- Bunchō, Actors Nakamura Matsue I as Umegawa and Ichikawa Komazô II as Yoemon, 11.19316
- Harunobu, A Young Woman in a Summer Shower, 11.19430
- Harunobu, Courtesan and Kamuro Looking at the Face of a Komusô Reflected in a Mirror, 11.19428
- Harunobu, Courtesan and Kamuro Looking at the Face of a Komusô Reflected in a Mirror, 45.833
- Harunobu, Courtesan Reading a Letter by Moonlight Reflected on Snow; Parody of Son Kang, 11.19438
- Harunobu, Courtesan Riding a Carp and Reading a Letter; Parody of the Immortal Qin Gao, 06.969
- Harunobu, Ebisu and Ofuji, from the series The Seven Gods of Good Fortune in the Modern World, 34.343
- Harunobu, Nishikigi of the Kanaya Lighting Incense beside a Mosquito Net, 11.16479
- Harunobu, Osen of the Kagiya and a Young Man with a Cat, 11.19496
- Harunobu, Parody of the Well-curb Episode from Tales of Ise, 11.19459
- Harunobu, The Sake Cup, sheet 4 of the series Marriage in Brocade Prints, the Carriage of the Virtuous Woman, known as the Marriage series, 11.19475
- Harunobu, Young Couple with Bush Clover; Parody of the Musashi Plain Episode of Tales of Ise, 11.19454
- Harunobu, Young Woman Riding a Turtle (Parody of the Story of Urashima Tarô), 11.19424
- Shigenobu I, Puppy Playing with a Ball, 21.9257
- Shunkō, Actors Nakamura Nakazô I and Ôtani Hiroji III, 11.2014
- Shunshō, Actor Segawa Kikunojô III as Shirokiya Okoma, from the series Fans of the East, 11.14871
- Shunshō, No. 3, Comparative Poems, from the series Six Types of Waka Poetry as Described in the Preface of the Kokinshû, 11.19295