Sappanwood: Ukiyo-e colorant
Sappanwood 蘇芳 (suō): A red dye extracted from any of several tropical trees of the senna genus, Caesalpinia, such as C. brasiliensis (from Brazil), C. crista (from Pernambuco), C. echinata (peachwood from Nicaraugua), or C. sappan (sappanwood from East Indies and Asia). Its principal colorant is Brasilin, a hydroxyanthraquinone, that gives a deep red to brownish color when it is oxidized to form brasilein.
Sappanwood has been detected but the use of it appears to have been infrequent. It also appears to have been used as a mixture with safflower or madder. Due to its sensitivity to pH, sappanwood can be manipulated to produce a range of colors as pink, red, or oranges. It is unknown if printers adjusted the pH to create a range of colors. Evidence of pH manipulation is difficult to extrapolate from the prints themselves since many of the examples have discolored to a dull pinkish brown due to fading and/or ageing.
Examples of Sappanwood in Ukiyo-e Prints
Excitation Emission Matrix (EEM) spectroscopy can easily identify the organic reds: safflower, madder, and sappanwood. Sappanwood does not fluoresce which produces an EEM pattern different from safflower and madder. Sappanwood has an Excitation maximum at 570 +/− 10nm and an Emission maximum about 600 +/− 10nm.
Images of Sappanwood
List of Prints
Below is a list of prints where sappanwood was detected.
Pages in category "Sappanwood: Ukiyo-e colorant"
The following 33 pages are in this category, out of 33 total.
- Eisen, Geisha at Night under Plum Blossoms, 11.26691-2
- Eisen, Minazuru-hime as Ono no Komachi and Benkei as Kisen Hôshi, from the series Characters from the Life of Ushiwaka as the Six Poetic Immortals, 11.25669
- Eisen, The Song Evening Mist at Asama Peak, on Scrap-paper Fabric with an Itchû-bushi Libretto, from the series A Modern Pine Needle Collection, 11.17878
- Harunobu, Courtesan Watching Two Kamuro Make a Snow Dog, 21.4463
- Harunobu, Parody of Saigyô Hôshi: Courtesan Looking at a Screen Painting of Mount Fuji, 11.19431
- Harunobu, Parody of the Well-curb Episode from Tales of Ise, 11.19459
- Harunobu, Young Woman Riding a Turtle (Parody of the Story of Urashima Tarô), 21.4594
- Harunobu, Young Woman Tuning a Shamisen, 06.479
- Hiroshige I, Naitô Shinjuku, Yotsuya, from the series One Hundred Famous Views of Edo, 11.35823
- Hiroshige I, Pine of Success and Oumayagashi, Asakusa River, from the series One Hundred Famous Views of Edo, 11.17029
- Hiroshige I/Hiroshige II, Ueno Yamashita, from the series One Hundred Famous Views of Edo, 11.35842
- Hokkei, Goat Standing by a Plum Tree, 21.9277
- Hokkei, Ômori, from the series Souvenirs of Enoshima, a Set of Sixteen, 11.19845
- Komatsuken, Courtesan Parading with Two Kamuro, 11.19711
- Komatsuken, Young Man as the Bodhisattva Monju, 11.30137
- Komatsuken, Young Woman as the Bodhisattva Fugen, 11.30136
- Koryūsai, Twilight Snow of the Bride, from the series Eight Views of Fashionable Human Relations, 11.19541
- Kunisada I, Poem by Ariwara no Narihira Ason: (Actor Ichikawa Danjûrô VIII as) Seigen, from the series Comparisons for Thirty-six Selected Poems, 11.42663
- Kunisada I, Young Woman Pointing and Giggling, from the series Types of the Floating World Seen through a Physiognomist's Glass, 34.471
- Kuniyoshi, Actor Ichikawa Kodanji IV as the Ghost of Asakura Tôgo, 11.30460
- Kuniyoshi, Takeout Sushi Suggesting Ataka, from the series Women in Benkei-checked Fabrics, 11.36360
- Kuniyoshi, Tsumagome: Abe no Yasuna and the Fox Kuzunoha, from the series Sixty-nine Stations of the Kisokaidô Road, 11.41803
- Sharaku, Actor Osagawa Tsuneyo II as Ippei's Older Sister Osan, 11.14673
- Sharaku, Actor Osagawa Tsuneyo II as Ippei's Older Sister Osan, 11.14674
- Sharaku, Actor Osagawa Tsuneyo II as Ippei's Older Sister Osan, 21.7244
- Shigenobu I, Puppy Playing with a Ball, 21.9257
- Shinsai, Chapters 16–18, from the series The Tale of Genji, 11.21066
- Shinsai, Chapters 25–27, from the series The Tale of Genji, 21.9264