Freeman's white lead

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A composite white pigment patented by Joseph Freeman in 1882 in England. Freeman's white lead was originally described as a mixture of lead sulfate and zinc white ground under high pressure. In a later patent for an improved white pigment, Freeman added barium sulfate to the mixture.

Synonyms and Related Terms

permanent white lead; leaded zinc oxide; leaded zinc white

Additional Information

M-C. Corbeil, P.J. Sirois, E.A. Moffatt, "The use of a white pigment patented by Freeman by Tom Thomson and the Group of Seven" preprints ICOM, Lyons, 1999. p369.

Sources Checked for Data in Record

  • M. Doerner, The Materials of the Artist, Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1934
  • Susan E. Schur, Conservation Terminology: A review of Past & Current Nomenclature of Materials, Technology and Conservation, Spring (p.34-39); Summer (p.35-38); Fall (p.25-36), 1985