Hard water

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    • turned off because same as hardness (water)**Hard water contains a significant amount of total dissolved solids, such as calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, or magnesium carbonate. Hard water will leave a visible residue upon evaporation. It can also react with soaps to form an insoluble scum that interfers with cleaning. Hardness may be removed by distillation, by adding sodium carbonate and lime or by filtering the water. Filtration may be done with zeolites, an ion exchange column, or a reverse osmosis system.

Sources Checked for Data in Record

  • Richard C. Wolbers, Nanette T. Sterman, Chris Stavroudis, Notes for Workshop on New Methods in the Cleaning of Paintings, J.Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 1990
  • Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, Douglas M. Considine (ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1976
  • The American Heritage Dictionary or Encarta, via Microsoft Bookshelf 98, Microsoft Corp., 1998