A calcium-containing cement that reacts with water to harden, even without drying. Hydraulic cements composed of lime and volcanic ash (pozzolana) were first used in ancient Greece and Rome. The mixture must contain at least 12% of a silicate/aluminate component such as clay, calcium silicate (portland cement), calcium-aluminate, magnesium oxychloride, pozzolana, slag, barium silicate/barium aluminate, brick dust, volcanic ash, pumice, etc. These may be present as original components in the burnt limestone or as additives. In water, the lime mixture hardens to a water resistant solid due to complex exothermic chemical changes involving the hydration of calcium silicates and aluminates.
Synonyms and Related Terms
ciment hydraulique (Fr.); cimento hidráulico (Port.); water cement; water lime; Roman cement; portland cement; Rosendale cement; slate cement; hydraulic lime; pozzolana
Hazards and Safety
Reaction with water may be exothermic
° J.H.Wills, "Inorganic Adhesives and Cements" in Handbook of Adhesives, I.Skeist (ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1977. p.117-138.
° John Ashurst "The Technology and Use of Hydraulic Lime" Building Conservation Directory 1997: Link -(contains specifications and characteristics of different mixture compositions)
Sources Checked for Data in Record
- R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia, Dover Publications, New York, 1966
- Thomas Gregory, The Condensed Chemical Dictionary, Reinhold Publishing, New York, 3rd ed., 1942
- Susan E. Schur, Conservation Terminology: A review of Past & Current Nomenclature of Materials, Technology and Conservation, Spring (p.34-39); Summer (p.35-38); Fall (p.25-36), 1985
- Dictionary of Building Preservation, Ward Bucher, ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York City, 1996
- Irving Skeist, Handbook of Adhesives, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1977