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Yellow larkspur/ picture by Stan Shebs



The yellow larkspur , (Delphinium luteum) is a perennial of the buttercup family that is endemic to the rocky, foggy hillsides of coastal Sonoma County, California. This rare plant is a small herb bearing bright yellow cornucopia-shaped flowers and is pollinated by humingbirds and insects. It has been listed as an endangered species since about 1970. The pretty flower is toxic and can cause deaths to cattle, less often to horses or sheep.

Synonyms and Related Terms

Summary of results

Sample preparation

For this analysis, yellow larkspur (Delphinium semibarbatum) flowers from Turkey were extracted with 1 mL methanol:H2O (v:v=1:1). Then the upper 30 μl of solution was removed for HPLC-DAD-MS analysis (20 μl was injected).

Analytical instrumentation and procedures

HPLC-DAD-MS analysis was performed with an Agilent 1100 liquid chromatography system consisting of an automatic injector, a gradient pump, a HP series 1100 DAD, and an Agilent series 1100 VL on-line atmospheric pressure ionization electrospray ionization mass spectrometer. Separations were done on a Vydac 214TP52 analytical column (2.1 mm diameterX250 mm; 5-ím particle size). The column was eluted at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min with a tertiary gradient of water (A),acetonitrile (B), and 1% (v/v) aqueous formic acid (C) with the following elution program: 0 min, 90% A, 5% B, 5% C; 0-55 min, a linear gradient to 35% A, 60% B, 5% C; 55-60 min, a linear gradient elution to 15% A, 80% B, 5% C; 60-62 min, isocratic elution at 15% A, 80% B, 5% C; 62-70 min gradient elution to 90% A, 5% B, 5% C; and reequilibration with the latter solvent for 15 min. The mass spectrometer was run both in the negative and positive ion mode [Method 1].



Absorbance at 350nm (mAU)


compounds identified

Identified compounds



Rutin UV-Vis


Quercetin UV-Vis


Compound RT (min.) MW UV/vis Other
rutin 27.0 610 278,352 Comments here
quercetin 34.6 302 280,395,370
kaempferol 39.0 286 280,395,368
isorhamnetin 39.0 316 280,395,368


  • Zhang, X., and Laursen, R. A., Development of Mild Extraction Methods for the Analysis of Natural Dyes in Textiles of Historical Interest Using LC-Diode Array Detector-MS. Analytical Chemistry 77, 2022-2025 (2005).
  • Zhang, X., Corrigan, K., MacLaren, B., Leveque, M., and Laursen, R. A., Characterization of Yellow Dyes in Nineteenth Century Chinese Textiles. Studies in Conservation 52, 211-220 (2007).
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