A general term for examination, control or test methods that do not alter the physical or chemical characteristics of an object and which do not need any sampling. Examples of nondesctructive testing methods include: photography (visible light, infrared or ultraviolet fluorescence), infrared reflectography, X-radiography, gamma radiography, neutron radiography, tomography (CAT scan), infrared thermography, holography, ultrasonic testing, hammer sounding, Eddy current… These methods, often complementary ones, permit to describe the internal structure of an object, detect defects like alterations, fractures, cracks, unbondings, delaminations, corroded areas…, or inform about assembly methods, presence of previous restorations..
NDT, nondestructive examination, NDE, contrôle non destrutif, CND, essai non destructif, END (Fr.); zerstörungsfreie Prüfung, ZfP (Deut.), prova non distruttiva, PnD (It.)
- D. Bradley, D. Creagh, Physical techniques in the study of art, archaeology and cultural heritage, Elsevier, Amsterdam (2006)
- R. van Grieken, K. Janssens, Cultural heritage conservation and environment impact assessment by non-destructive techniques and microanalysis, Taylor & Francis, London (2004)
- Nondestructive Testing Handbook, Third Edition Set (Ten Volumes), ASNT, Columbus OH
- W. Goedecke, Wörterbuch der Werkstoffprüfung (Dictionary of material testing – German – English – French), VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf (1992) ISBN 3-18-401159-3