A medium sized deciduous tree, such as Nyssa sylvatica and Nyssa aquatica, native to the eastern United States. Tupelo trees produce a stiff, tough wood that is hard to split. It is used for pallets, baskets, boxes, veneer, barrels and firewood. Tupelo bark dye has good washfastness and fair lightfastness.
Synonyms and Related Terms
black gum (Nyssa sylvatica); sour gum; pepperidge; beetlebung; water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica)
Medium sized tree growing to 25 m. Bark=grayish brown with shallow, irregular furrows. Leaf=simple alternate, pinnately veined oval (3-5 inches long) with coarse teeth, turning an intense red/purple color in fall.. Fruit = purple drupe (1 cm) ripening in late summer.
Paper fiber type: hardwood, diffuse porous. Using transmitted light microscopy, pulp is identified by long vessels with profuse opposite pitting. Spirals may be present on tips. Perforations are scalariform with >15 bars. Appearance with Graff "C" stain: dark blue, but varies with bleaching. Average dimensions of fibers: length, 1.8mm. 20-32μm wide. Common pulping method: kraft.
Sources Checked for Data in Record
- R.J. Adrosko, Natural Dyes in the United States, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, 1968
- G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 380
- John and Margaret Cannon, Dye Plants and Dyeing, Herbert Press, London, 1994
- External source or communication Comment: Hardwood Manufacturers Institute, Memphis, Tenn.: air-dry weight = 35 ppcf
- Edward Reich, Carlton J. Siegler, Consumer Goods: How to Know and Use Them, American Book Company, New York City, 1937
- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, at http://www.wikipedia.com Comment: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tupelo (Accessed Dec. 9, 2005)
- Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, Douglas M. Considine (ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1976
- Marja-Sisko Ilvessalo-Pfäffli. Fiber Atlas: Identification of Papermaking Fibers (Springer Series in Wood Science). Springer, 1995.
- Walter Rantanen. "Fiber ID Course." Integrated Paper Services. June 2013. Lecture.