Difference between revisions of "Alizarin, natural"

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[[File:rubiatintoriaPD1.jpg|thumb|Madder plant  
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[[File:rubiatintoriaPD1.jpg|thumb|Madder plant ''Rubia tinctoria'']]
 
 
''Rubia tinctoria'']]
 
 
== Description ==
 
== Description ==
 +
[[File:03 W.Madder.jpg|thumb|Western madder]]
  
Natural alizarin is a red colorant extracted along with [[purpurin|purpurin]] from the roots of the [[madder|madder]] plant, ''Rubia tinctorum'' L.. The chemical name for alizarin is 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone. It has been used as a dye and pigment since ancient times. The colorant was first isolated in 1862 by Colin and Robiquet in France. The synthetic form of alizarin was first made in 1868 by Carl Graebe and Carl Lieberman, from [[anthracene|anthracene]]. The natural colorant was no longer used as a textile dye after the commercial introduction of the [[alizarin%2C%20synthetic|synthetic alizarin]] in 1871.
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Natural alizarin is a red colorant extracted along with [[purpurin|purpurin]] from the roots of the [[madder|madder]] plant, ''Rubia tinctorum'' L.. The chemical name for alizarin is 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone. It has been used as a dye and pigment since ancient times. The colorant was first isolated in 1862 by Colin and Robiquet in France. The synthetic form of alizarin was first made in 1868 by German chemists Carl Graebe and Carl Lieberman, from [[anthracene|anthracene]]. The natural colorant was no longer used as a textile dye after the commercial introduction of the [[alizarin%2C%20synthetic|synthetic alizarin]] in 1871.
 
 
[[File:03 W.Madder.jpg|thumb|Western madder]]
 
  
 +
* See [[https://cameo.mfa.org/wiki/Category:Natural_Dyes '''Dye Analysis''' (madder)]]
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
  
 
''Rubia tinctorum L.''; Natural Red 9, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12; CI 75330; madder; alizarine; 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone; seiyo-akane (Jap.); alitsariini (Fin.); alizarine (Fr.); alizarina (Esp.); alizarina (It.); alizarina, natural (Port.)
 
''Rubia tinctorum L.''; Natural Red 9, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12; CI 75330; madder; alizarine; 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone; seiyo-akane (Jap.); alitsariini (Fin.); alizarine (Fr.); alizarina (Esp.); alizarina (It.); alizarina, natural (Port.)
  
{| class="wikitable"
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[[File:MFA 30.121.JPG|thumb|Painted cotton fragment<br>MFA# 30.121]]
|-
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! scope="row"| Refractive Index
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== Physical and Chemical Properties ==
| 1.70
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* Alizarin is soluble in hexane and chloroform
|}
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* Melting point = 277-278 C
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* Refractive Index = 1.70
  
== Additional Information ==
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== Resources and Citations ==
  
* H.Schweppe, J.Winter, "Madder and Alizarin", ''Artists Pigments'', Volume 3, E. West FitzHugh (ed.), Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1997.
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* H.Schweppe, J.Winter, "Madder and Alizarin", ''Artists Pigments'', Vol. 3, E. West FitzHugh (ed.), Oxford University Press:Oxford, 1997.
 
* Pigments Through the Ages: [http://webexhibits.org/pigments/indiv/overview/alizarin.html Madder Lake]
 
* Pigments Through the Ages: [http://webexhibits.org/pigments/indiv/overview/alizarin.html Madder Lake]
* See also [[http://cameo.mfa.org/wiki/Category:Natural_Dyes '''Dye Analysis''' (madder)]] and [[http://cameo.mfa.org/wiki/MFA_30.121,_Painted_cotton_fragment,_India_(19th_century)]]
 
 
== Sources Checked for Data in Record ==
 
 
* ''Artists' Pigments: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics'', Elisabeth West FitzHugh, Oxford University Press, Oxford, Vol. 3, 1997  Comment: H.Schweppe, J.Winter, "Madder and Alizarin"
 
 
 
* G.S.Brady, ''Materials Handbook'', McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971
 
* G.S.Brady, ''Materials Handbook'', McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971
  
 
* R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, ''Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia'', Dover Publications, New York, 1966
 
* R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, ''Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia'', Dover Publications, New York, 1966
  
* ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', http://www.britannica.com  Comment: "Alizarin." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2003.  19 Sep, 2003 .
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* ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', http://www.britannica.com  Comment: "Alizarin." Accessed 19 Sep, 2003.
  
 
* Reed Kay, ''The Painter's Guide To Studio Methods and Materials'', Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1983
 
* Reed Kay, ''The Painter's Guide To Studio Methods and Materials'', Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1983
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* R.Feller, M.Curran, C.Bailie, 'Identification of Traditional Organic Colorants Employed in Japanese Prints and Determination of their Rates of Fading', ''Japanese Woodblock Prints'', Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Oberlin, 1984
 
* R.Feller, M.Curran, C.Bailie, 'Identification of Traditional Organic Colorants Employed in Japanese Prints and Determination of their Rates of Fading', ''Japanese Woodblock Prints'', Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Oberlin, 1984
  
* Website address 2  Comment: http://www.coloria.net/varita.htm - Finnish name
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* Website: http://www.coloria.net/varita.htm - Finnish name
  
* Website address 1  Comment: pigments/indiv/technical/alizarin.html  RI=1.70 for alizarin, and 1.66 for madder lake
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* Website: pigments/indiv/technical/alizarin.html  RI=1.70 for alizarin, and 1.66 for madder lake
  
 
* Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabulary/aat/, J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 2000
 
* Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabulary/aat/, J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 2000

Latest revision as of 13:13, 22 June 2022

Madder plant Rubia tinctoria

Description

Western madder

Natural alizarin is a red colorant extracted along with Purpurin from the roots of the Madder plant, Rubia tinctorum L.. The chemical name for alizarin is 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone. It has been used as a dye and pigment since ancient times. The colorant was first isolated in 1862 by Colin and Robiquet in France. The synthetic form of alizarin was first made in 1868 by German chemists Carl Graebe and Carl Lieberman, from Anthracene. The natural colorant was no longer used as a textile dye after the commercial introduction of the synthetic alizarin in 1871.

Synonyms and Related Terms

Rubia tinctorum L.; Natural Red 9, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12; CI 75330; madder; alizarine; 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone; seiyo-akane (Jap.); alitsariini (Fin.); alizarine (Fr.); alizarina (Esp.); alizarina (It.); alizarina, natural (Port.)

Painted cotton fragment
MFA# 30.121

Physical and Chemical Properties

  • Alizarin is soluble in hexane and chloroform
  • Melting point = 277-278 C
  • Refractive Index = 1.70

Resources and Citations

  • H.Schweppe, J.Winter, "Madder and Alizarin", Artists Pigments, Vol. 3, E. West FitzHugh (ed.), Oxford University Press:Oxford, 1997.
  • Pigments Through the Ages: Madder Lake
  • G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971
  • R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia, Dover Publications, New York, 1966
  • Reed Kay, The Painter's Guide To Studio Methods and Materials, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1983
  • Thomas B. Brill, Light Its Interaction with Art and Antiquities, Plenum Press, New York City, 1980
  • R.Feller, M.Curran, C.Bailie, 'Identification of Traditional Organic Colorants Employed in Japanese Prints and Determination of their Rates of Fading', Japanese Woodblock Prints, Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Oberlin, 1984
  • Website: pigments/indiv/technical/alizarin.html RI=1.70 for alizarin, and 1.66 for madder lake

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