A nonmetallic halogen element. Chlorine has an abundance of 0.031% in the earth's crust (Halite, sylvite, Carnallite) and 1.9% in seawater (chloride salts). It was discovered in 1774 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele and recognized as an element by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1810. Chlorine exists at room temperature as a greenish-yellow gas with a suffocating odor. It was used as a poisonous gas in World War I called Bertholite. Chlorine is used for bleaching paper pulp, as a germicide in water, and for the synthesis of numerous organic compounds.
Synonyms and Related Terms
Cl; dephlogisticated marine gas; oxygenized muriatic acid gas; Bertholite; Chloor (Ned.); chlore (Fr.); Chlor (Deut.); cloro (It., Port., Esp.); Klor (Sven.)
Corrosive. Toxic by inhalation. Contact will burn skin and tissues.
Strong oxidizing agent. Dangerous with organic compounds.
Physical and Chemical Properties
Soluble in water, chlorides and alcohols.
|Composition||Cl (atomic no. 17)|
|Melting Point||-101.00 C|
|Molecular Weight||atomic wt = 35.453|
|Boiling Point||-34.05 C|
Resources and Citations
- Web Elements: Website
- G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 188
- Richard S. Lewis, Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 10th ed., 1993
- Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, Douglas M. Considine (ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1976
- Random House, Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, Grammercy Book, New York, 1997
- The Merck Index, Martha Windholz (ed.), Merck Research Labs, Rahway NJ, 10th edition, 1983 Comment: entry 2145
- The American Heritage Dictionary or Encarta, via Microsoft Bookshelf 98, Microsoft Corp., 1998
- Matt Roberts, Don Etherington, Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books: a Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1982
- Susan E. Schur, Conservation Terminology: A review of Past & Current Nomenclature of Materials, Technology and Conservation, Spring (p.34-39); Summer (p.35-38); Fall (p.25-36), 1985
- Michael McCann, Artist Beware, Watson-Guptill Publications, New York City, 1979
- Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabulary/aat/, J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 2000