Difference between revisions of "Green earth"

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[[File:pc40801celadonite2.jpg|thumb|Celadonite]]
 
[[File:pc40801celadonite2.jpg|thumb|Celadonite]]
 
== Description ==
 
== Description ==
 
+
[[File:pc30231chlorite.jpg|thumb|Chlorite]]
 
Green colored siliceous, iron-rich clays that have been used as pigments since ancient times. Green earth pigments were ground from available minerals, principally [[celadonite]] and [[glauconite]], though cronstedtite, [[montmorillonite]], and [[chlorite]] have also been used. The color of green earth can range from yellow-green to sea-green to greenish-gray. In general, green earth is translucent in oils with moderate tinting strength and poor hiding power. It is a permanent, stable pigment that is compatible with all media. Green earth, or terre verte, is sometimes imitated by mixtures of [[Naples yellow]] and [[Prussian blue]].
 
Green colored siliceous, iron-rich clays that have been used as pigments since ancient times. Green earth pigments were ground from available minerals, principally [[celadonite]] and [[glauconite]], though cronstedtite, [[montmorillonite]], and [[chlorite]] have also been used. The color of green earth can range from yellow-green to sea-green to greenish-gray. In general, green earth is translucent in oils with moderate tinting strength and poor hiding power. It is a permanent, stable pigment that is compatible with all media. Green earth, or terre verte, is sometimes imitated by mixtures of [[Naples yellow]] and [[Prussian blue]].
 
[[File:pc30231chlorite.jpg|thumb|Chlorite]]
 
  
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
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Pigment Green 23; CI 77009; terre verte (Fr.); terra verde (It., Port.); tierra verde (Esp.); grüne Erde (Deut.); creta viridis; celadon green; Veronese earth; Belgian earth; Hessian earth; Tyrolean earth; Bohemian earth; Saxon earth; Rhenish earth; green stone; Theodotion; prasina; holly green; verdetta; aegirin; celadonite: glauconite: cronstedtite; chlorite
 
Pigment Green 23; CI 77009; terre verte (Fr.); terra verde (It., Port.); tierra verde (Esp.); grüne Erde (Deut.); creta viridis; celadon green; Veronese earth; Belgian earth; Hessian earth; Tyrolean earth; Bohemian earth; Saxon earth; Rhenish earth; green stone; Theodotion; prasina; holly green; verdetta; aegirin; celadonite: glauconite: cronstedtite; chlorite
  
[[[SliderGallery rightalign|Green Earth, Terre Verde, Forbes 367.PNG~FTIR Forbes367 (MFA)|Green earth, Terre verte, Roberson, 1926 (bottle 376- celadonite)).TIF~FTIR Forbes376 (MFA)|celadoniteRS.jpg~Raman|ChloriteClinochloreitaly1.jpg~Raman|PIG360.jpg~XRD|f360sem.jpg~SEM|f360edsbw.jpg~EDS]]]
+
[[[SliderGallery rightalign|Green Earth, Terre Verde, Forbes 367.PNG~FTIR Forbes367 (MFA)|Green earth, Terre verte, Roberson, 1926 (bottle 376- celadonite)).TIF~FTIR Forbes376 (MFA)|ChartImageLarge_2690.jpg~Raman (MFA)|PIG360.jpg~XRD|f360sem.jpg~SEM|f360edsbw.jpg~EDS]]]
 +
 
 +
== Risks ==
 +
 
 +
* No significant hazards.
 +
* Some forms of celadonite have fibrous needle-like crystals.
  
== Other Properties ==
+
== Physical and Chemical Properties ==
  
 
Slightly soluble in acids. Turns a warm, dark-brown color (known as burnt green earth) when heated to around 500 °C.
 
Slightly soluble in acids. Turns a warm, dark-brown color (known as burnt green earth) when heated to around 500 °C.
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|-
 
|-
 
! scope="row"| Density
 
! scope="row"| Density
| 2.5-2.7
+
| 2.5-2.7 g/ml
 
|-
 
|-
 
! scope="row"| Refractive Index
 
! scope="row"| Refractive Index
 
| 1.62
 
| 1.62
 
|}
 
|}
 
== Hazards and Safety ==
 
 
No significant hazards. Some forms of celadonite have fibrous needle-like crystals.
 
 
== Additional Information ==
 
 
° C. Grissom, "Green Earth", ''Artists Pigments'', Volume 1, R. Feller (ed.); Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1986.
 
 
° Pigments Through the Ages: [http://webexhibits.org/pigments/indiv/overview/greenearth.html Green earth] Record content reviewed by EU-Artech, November 2007.
 
  
 
== Additional Images ==
 
== Additional Images ==
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</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
 
+
==Resources and Citations==
== Sources Checked for Data in Record ==
 
  
 
* R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, ''Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia'', Dover Publications, New York, 1966  Comment: density=  2.5-2.7 and ref.index = 1.62
 
* R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, ''Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia'', Dover Publications, New York, 1966  Comment: density=  2.5-2.7 and ref.index = 1.62
  
* ''Artists' Pigments: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics'', R.L.Feller, ed., Cambridge University Press, London, Vol. 1, 1986 Comment: C. Grissom "Green Earth"
+
* C. Grissom, "Green Earth", ''Artists Pigments'', Volume 1, R. Feller (ed.); Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1986.
  
 
* Ralph Mayer, ''A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques'', Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969 (also 1945 printing)
 
* Ralph Mayer, ''A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques'', Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969 (also 1945 printing)
  
* External source or communication  Comment: Contributed information: Helen Howard, November 2007
+
* Helen Howard, Contributed information, November 2007
  
 
* ''The Dictionary of Art'', Grove's Dictionaries Inc., New York, 1996  Comment: "Pigment"
 
* ''The Dictionary of Art'', Grove's Dictionaries Inc., New York, 1996  Comment: "Pigment"
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* Thomas B. Brill, ''Light Its Interaction with Art and Antiquities'', Plenum Press, New York City, 1980  Comment: ref. index = 2.5-2.7 (seems like an error)
 
* Thomas B. Brill, ''Light Its Interaction with Art and Antiquities'', Plenum Press, New York City, 1980  Comment: ref. index = 2.5-2.7 (seems like an error)
  
* Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabulary/aat/, J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 2000
+
* Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, https://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabulary/aat/, J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 2000
  
* Website address 1  Comment: Pigments Through the Ages: http://webexhibits.org/pigments/indiv/overview/greenearth.html - alpha =1.59-1.612, beta =1.609-1.643, gamma =1.61-1.644 (Link to UV Vis spectra)
+
* Pigments Through the Ages: http://webexhibits.org/pigments/indiv/overview/greenearth.html - alpha =1.59-1.612, beta =1.609-1.643, gamma =1.61-1.644 (Link to UV Vis spectra)
  
  
  
 
[[Category:Materials database]]
 
[[Category:Materials database]]

Latest revision as of 09:54, 30 August 2022

Celadonite

Description

Chlorite

Green colored siliceous, iron-rich clays that have been used as pigments since ancient times. Green earth pigments were ground from available minerals, principally Celadonite and Glauconite, though cronstedtite, Montmorillonite, and Chlorite have also been used. The color of green earth can range from yellow-green to sea-green to greenish-gray. In general, green earth is translucent in oils with moderate tinting strength and poor hiding power. It is a permanent, stable pigment that is compatible with all media. Green earth, or terre verte, is sometimes imitated by mixtures of Naples yellow and Prussian blue.

Synonyms and Related Terms

Pigment Green 23; CI 77009; terre verte (Fr.); terra verde (It., Port.); tierra verde (Esp.); grüne Erde (Deut.); creta viridis; celadon green; Veronese earth; Belgian earth; Hessian earth; Tyrolean earth; Bohemian earth; Saxon earth; Rhenish earth; green stone; Theodotion; prasina; holly green; verdetta; aegirin; celadonite: glauconite: cronstedtite; chlorite

FTIR Forbes367 (MFA)

Green Earth, Terre Verde, Forbes 367.PNG

FTIR Forbes376 (MFA)

Green earth, Terre verte, Roberson, 1926 (bottle 376- celadonite)).TIF

Raman (MFA)

ChartImageLarge 2690.jpg

XRD

PIG360.jpg


Risks

  • No significant hazards.
  • Some forms of celadonite have fibrous needle-like crystals.

Physical and Chemical Properties

Slightly soluble in acids. Turns a warm, dark-brown color (known as burnt green earth) when heated to around 500 °C.

Density 2.5-2.7 g/ml
Refractive Index 1.62

Additional Images

Resources and Citations

  • R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia, Dover Publications, New York, 1966 Comment: density= 2.5-2.7 and ref.index = 1.62
  • C. Grissom, "Green Earth", Artists Pigments, Volume 1, R. Feller (ed.); Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1986.
  • Ralph Mayer, A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969 (also 1945 printing)
  • Helen Howard, Contributed information, November 2007
  • The Dictionary of Art, Grove's Dictionaries Inc., New York, 1996 Comment: "Pigment"
  • M. Doerner, The Materials of the Artist, Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1934
  • R.D. Harley, Artists' Pigments c. 1600-1835, Butterworth Scientific, London, 1982
  • Matt Roberts, Don Etherington, Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books: a Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1982
  • Thomas B. Brill, Light Its Interaction with Art and Antiquities, Plenum Press, New York City, 1980 Comment: ref. index = 2.5-2.7 (seems like an error)