Difference between revisions of "Obsidian"

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[[File:57.521-CR8673-d1.jpg|thumb|]]
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[[File:57.521-CR8673-d1.jpg|thumb|Egyptian amulet<br>MFA# 57.521]]
 
== Description ==
 
== Description ==
  
 
A dark, shiny glass formed in nature by the rapid cooling of lava. Obsidian is widely distributed and has been used since Paleolithic (before 3500 BCE) times for mirrors, weapons, tools, and jewelry. Sources of obsidian include Anatolia, Armenia, Ethiopia, Greece (Milos), Italy (Lipari, Eolie), Iceland, the U.S. (Wyoming), Mexico (Teotihuacan), Guatemala (Tikal), and Peru. Obsidian is often black in color but may also be red, brown or green. It produces conchoidal fractures when cleaved. Analysis of trace elements in obsidian pieces can be traced back to their original deposits. This has been used to evaluate early trading patterns.
 
A dark, shiny glass formed in nature by the rapid cooling of lava. Obsidian is widely distributed and has been used since Paleolithic (before 3500 BCE) times for mirrors, weapons, tools, and jewelry. Sources of obsidian include Anatolia, Armenia, Ethiopia, Greece (Milos), Italy (Lipari, Eolie), Iceland, the U.S. (Wyoming), Mexico (Teotihuacan), Guatemala (Tikal), and Peru. Obsidian is often black in color but may also be red, brown or green. It produces conchoidal fractures when cleaved. Analysis of trace elements in obsidian pieces can be traced back to their original deposits. This has been used to evaluate early trading patterns.
  
[[File:Obsidianemr1.jpg|thumb|Obsidian]]
 
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
  
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[[[SliderGallery rightalign|Obsidian (volcanic glass).TIF~FTIR (MFA)]]]
 
[[[SliderGallery rightalign|Obsidian (volcanic glass).TIF~FTIR (MFA)]]]
 
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== Physical and Chemical Properties ==
== Other Properties ==
 
  
 
Luster = vitreous  Transparent to translucent
 
Luster = vitreous  Transparent to translucent
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|-
 
|-
 
! scope="row"| Density
 
! scope="row"| Density
| 2.6
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| 2.6 g/ml
 
|-
 
|-
 
! scope="row"| Refractive Index
 
! scope="row"| Refractive Index
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== Additional Images ==
 
== Additional Images ==
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
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File:Obsidianemr1.jpg|Obsidian
 
File:obsidiansnowflakelarge.jpg|Obsidian
 
File:obsidiansnowflakelarge.jpg|Obsidian
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
 
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== Resources and Citations ==
== Sources Checked for Data in Record ==
 
  
 
* G.S.Brady, ''Materials Handbook'', McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971  Comment: p. 641
 
* G.S.Brady, ''Materials Handbook'', McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971  Comment: p. 641
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* C.W.Chesterman, K.E.Lowe, ''Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Rocks and Minerals'', Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1979  Comment: Mohs hardness = 6-7
 
* C.W.Chesterman, K.E.Lowe, ''Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Rocks and Minerals'', Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1979  Comment: Mohs hardness = 6-7
  
* Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, at http://www.wikipedia.com  Comment: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obsidian (Accessed Nov. 9, 2005) - Mohs hardness = 5.0-5.5
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* Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obsidian (Accessed Nov. 9, 2005) - Mohs hardness = 5.0-5.5
  
 
* George Savage, ''Art and Antique Restorer's Handbook'', Rockliff Publishing Corp, London, 1954
 
* George Savage, ''Art and Antique Restorer's Handbook'', Rockliff Publishing Corp, London, 1954

Latest revision as of 11:56, 2 October 2022

Egyptian amulet
MFA# 57.521

Description

A dark, shiny glass formed in nature by the rapid cooling of lava. Obsidian is widely distributed and has been used since Paleolithic (before 3500 BCE) times for mirrors, weapons, tools, and jewelry. Sources of obsidian include Anatolia, Armenia, Ethiopia, Greece (Milos), Italy (Lipari, Eolie), Iceland, the U.S. (Wyoming), Mexico (Teotihuacan), Guatemala (Tikal), and Peru. Obsidian is often black in color but may also be red, brown or green. It produces conchoidal fractures when cleaved. Analysis of trace elements in obsidian pieces can be traced back to their original deposits. This has been used to evaluate early trading patterns.

Synonyms and Related Terms

volcanic glass; basalt glass; tachylite; perlite; calite; mountain mahogany (deep red obsidian); Apache tears (pebble-like nodules); obsidian snowflake (black with white inclusions); obsidiana (Esp., Port.); obsidienne (Fr.); Obsidian (Deut.); obsidiaan (Ned.)

FTIR (MFA)

Obsidian (volcanic glass).TIF

Physical and Chemical Properties

Luster = vitreous Transparent to translucent

Mohs Hardness 5 - 7
Density 2.6 g/ml
Refractive Index 1.482-1.496

Additional Images

Resources and Citations

  • G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 641
  • Jack Odgen, Jewellery of the Ancient World, Rizzoli International Publications Inc., New York City, 1982
  • Encyclopedia of Archaeology, Glyn E. Daniel, ed., Thomas Y. Crowell Co., New York, 1977
  • A.Lucas, J.R.Harris, Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries, Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd., London, 4th edition, 1962
  • C.W.Chesterman, K.E.Lowe, Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Rocks and Minerals, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1979 Comment: Mohs hardness = 6-7
  • George Savage, Art and Antique Restorer's Handbook, Rockliff Publishing Corp, London, 1954
  • Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, Douglas M. Considine (ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1976
  • Random House, Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, Grammercy Book, New York, 1997
  • The American Heritage Dictionary or Encarta, via Microsoft Bookshelf 98, Microsoft Corp., 1998
  • CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Robert Weast (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, v. 61, 1980 Comment: ref. index=1.482-1.496