Difference between revisions of "Sepia"

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[[File:M23205-SC40034.jpg|thumb|]]
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[[File:MFA59795.jpg|thumb|Lithograph of Stonehenge<br>MFA# 59.795]]
 
== Description ==
 
== Description ==
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[[File:48.375-SC31223.jpg|thumb|Sepia wash<br>MFA# 48.375]]
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1) The dark brown-black liquid secreted by the cuttlefish, ''Sepia officinalis'' or other Cephalopoda. The ink sacs and fluid are removed from the squid and sun-dried; then the color is extracted with alkali and precipitated with acid. Sepia was used for inks since antiquity. It was first introduced as a watercolor pigment mixed with [[gum arabic]] about 1780 by Jacob Seydelmann in Dresden. Sepia is a natural organic acid that is fairly permanent, except in strong sunlight.
  
1) The dark brown-black liquid secreted by the cuttlefish, ''Sepia officinalis'' or other Cephalopoda. The ink sacs and fluid are removed from the squid and sun-dried; then the color is extracted with alkali and precipitated with acid. Sepia was used for inks since antiquity. It was first introduced as a watercolor pigment mixed with gum arabic about 1780 by Jacob Seydelmann in Dresden. Sepia is a natural organic acid that is fairly permanent, except in strong sunlight.  
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2) A dark, warm black color resembling the tone obtained from cuttlefish ink. Other pigment mixtures of [[burnt umber]], [[Vandyke brown]], and [[lampblack]] are also sold under the name sepia.  
  
2) A dark, warm black color resembling the tone obtained from cuttlefish ink. Other pigment mixtures of burnt umber, Vandyke brown, and lampblack are also sold under the name sepia.  
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3) (not common) A powder composed of ground cuttlefish bones. Sepia powder, also called [[sepiolite]], is composed of [[calcium carbonate]] and [[calcium phosphate]]. It is used as a polishing agent.
  
3) (not common) A powder composed of ground cuttlefish bones. Sepia powder, also called sepiolite, is composed of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate. It is used as a polishing agent.
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== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
  
[[File:48.375-SC31223.jpg|thumb|]]
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1) Warm Black; cuttlefish ink; sepiomelanin; Natural Brown 9; sépia (Fr., Port.
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
  
1: Warm Black; cuttlefish ink; sepiomelanin; Natural Brown 9; sépia (Fr., Port.) 3: cuttlefish bone; cuttlebone; sepiolite;
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3) cuttlefish bone; cuttlebone; sepiolite;
  
 
[[[SliderGallery rightalign|Sepia, Kremer Pigments.PNG~FTIR (MFA)]]]
 
[[[SliderGallery rightalign|Sepia, Kremer Pigments.PNG~FTIR (MFA)]]]
  
== Other Properties ==
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== Physical and Chemical Properties ==
  
Soluble in ammonium hydroxide, alkalis. Insoluble in acids, water, ethanol. Decolorized by nitric acid and chlorine bleaches. Fishy odor.  Fugitive in ultraviolet light.
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* Soluble in ammonium hydroxide, alkalis. Insoluble in acids, water, ethanol.  
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* Decolorized by nitric acid and chlorine bleaches.  
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* Fishy odor.   
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* Fugitive in ultraviolet light.
  
== Sources Checked for Data in Record ==
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== Resources and Citations ==
  
 
* R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, ''Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia'', Dover Publications, New York, 1966
 
* R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, ''Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia'', Dover Publications, New York, 1966
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* ''The American Heritage Dictionary'' or ''Encarta'', via Microsoft Bookshelf 98, Microsoft Corp., 1998
 
* ''The American Heritage Dictionary'' or ''Encarta'', via Microsoft Bookshelf 98, Microsoft Corp., 1998
  
* ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', http://www.britannica.com  Comment: "sepia." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service  7 Apr. 2005 .
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* ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', http://www.britannica.com  Comment: "sepia." (Accessed 7 Apr. 2005).
  
 
* ''The Dictionary of Art'', Grove's Dictionaries Inc., New York, 1996  Comment: 'Pigment'
 
* ''The Dictionary of Art'', Grove's Dictionaries Inc., New York, 1996  Comment: 'Pigment'

Latest revision as of 13:05, 30 May 2022

Lithograph of Stonehenge
MFA# 59.795

Description

Sepia wash
MFA# 48.375

1) The dark brown-black liquid secreted by the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis or other Cephalopoda. The ink sacs and fluid are removed from the squid and sun-dried; then the color is extracted with alkali and precipitated with acid. Sepia was used for inks since antiquity. It was first introduced as a watercolor pigment mixed with Gum arabic about 1780 by Jacob Seydelmann in Dresden. Sepia is a natural organic acid that is fairly permanent, except in strong sunlight.

2) A dark, warm black color resembling the tone obtained from cuttlefish ink. Other pigment mixtures of Burnt umber, Vandyke brown, and Lampblack are also sold under the name sepia.

3) (not common) A powder composed of ground cuttlefish bones. Sepia powder, also called Sepiolite, is composed of Calcium carbonate and Calcium phosphate. It is used as a polishing agent.

Synonyms and Related Terms

1) Warm Black; cuttlefish ink; sepiomelanin; Natural Brown 9; sépia (Fr., Port.)

3) cuttlefish bone; cuttlebone; sepiolite;

FTIR (MFA)

Sepia, Kremer Pigments.PNG


Physical and Chemical Properties

  • Soluble in ammonium hydroxide, alkalis. Insoluble in acids, water, ethanol.
  • Decolorized by nitric acid and chlorine bleaches.
  • Fishy odor.
  • Fugitive in ultraviolet light.

Resources and Citations

  • R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia, Dover Publications, New York, 1966
  • Helmut Schweppe, Schweppe color collection index and information book
  • G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 609
  • Reed Kay, The Painter's Guide To Studio Methods and Materials, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1983
  • Ralph Mayer, A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969 (also 1945 printing)
  • Richard S. Lewis, Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 10th ed., 1993
  • Hermann Kuhn, Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art and Antiquities, Butterworths, London, 1986
  • R.D. Harley, Artists' Pigments c. 1600-1835, Butterworth Scientific, London, 1982
  • Matt Roberts, Don Etherington, Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books: a Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1982
  • Random House, Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, Grammercy Book, New York, 1997
  • The Merck Index, Martha Windholz (ed.), Merck Research Labs, Rahway NJ, 10th edition, 1983 Comment: entry 8601
  • The American Heritage Dictionary or Encarta, via Microsoft Bookshelf 98, Microsoft Corp., 1998
  • The Dictionary of Art, Grove's Dictionaries Inc., New York, 1996 Comment: 'Pigment'

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