Difference between revisions of "Birch"

From CAMEO
Jump to: navigation, search
m (Text replace - "== Authority ==" to "== Sources Checked for Data in Record ==")
(Sources Checked for Data in Record)
 
(11 intermediate revisions by 2 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
[[File:17.1771-SC34108.jpg|thumb|'''MFA Acc. #:''' 17.1771]]
 
[[File:17.1771-SC34108.jpg|thumb|'''MFA Acc. #:''' 17.1771]]
 
== Description ==
 
== Description ==
 +
[[File:1980.398-SC58772.jpg|thumb|'''MFA Acc. #:''' 1980.398]]
  
A hardy, deciduous tree of the family ''Betulaceae'' that is common to North America, Europe and Asia. Birch tress are readily distinguished by their white bark and diamond-shaped leaves. The lightweight bark is full of natural waxes, oils and tannins that make it tough, durable, and waterproof. Thin sheets of bark were commonly used for paper in Central Asia and the Far East. The water-impervious bark was used for wigwams, canoes, and shoes for North American Indians. Birch produces a strong, pale yellow-brown wood with a close, straight grain and uniform texture that finishes to a smooth surface. It is sometimes dyed to imitate [[mahogany]]. Birch is used for tools handles, [[plywood]], hoops, shoe heels, flooring, furniture, cabinetry, and firewood. Dyes can also be obtained from various parts of birch trees. The leaves, usually gathered before they develop a mature green color, produce a yellow dye. The bark produces a pale brown color. The female catkins (a long shoot bearing flowers with no leaves) are boiled to produce a dull yellow color. [[Birch bark oil]] and birch beer are made from sap obtained from the trees. The sap allows birch bark to burn even when it is wet.  
+
A hardy, deciduous tree of the family ''Betulaceae'' that is common to North America, Europe and Asia. Birch trees are readily distinguished by their white bark and diamond-shaped leaves. The wood is close-grained with a satinny texture that takes nice polish.  The lightweight bark is full of natural waxes, oils and tannins that make it tough, durable, and waterproof. Thin sheets of bark were commonly used for paper in Central Asia and the Far East. The water-impervious bark was used for wigwams, canoes, and shoes for North American Indians. Birch produces a strong, pale yellow-brown wood with a close, straight grain and uniform texture that finishes to a smooth surface. It is sometimes dyed to imitate [[mahogany]]. Birch is used for tools handles, [[plywood]], hoops, shoe heels, flooring, furniture, cabinetry, and firewood. Dyes can also be obtained from the leaves gathered before they develop a mature green color, produce a yellow dye while the soluble parts of the bark produce a pale brown color. The female catkins (a long shoot bearing flowers with no leaves) are boiled to produce a dull yellow color. [[Birch bark oil]] and birch beer are made from sap obtained from the trees. The sap, also called birch tar or Russian oil, and allows the wood to burn even when it is wet. It also produces a thermoplastic resin that is used as a waterproof adhesive, flavoring and fragrance.
 
 
 
 
  
 
For micrographs of thin sections, also see [[paper birch]], [[yellow birch]], and [[black birch]].
 
For micrographs of thin sections, also see [[paper birch]], [[yellow birch]], and [[black birch]].
 
[[File:1980.398-SC58772.jpg|thumb|'''MFA Acc. #:''' 1980.398]]
 
  
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
  
 
betula; birk (Dan.); bouleau (Fr.); Birke (Deut.); beulla (It.); abedul (Esp.); berk (Ned.); betula (Port.); bjørk (Nor.); brzoza (Pol.); björk (Sven.); black birch (''Betula nigra''); paper birch (''Betula papyrifera''); cherry birch (''Betula lenta''); yellow birch (''Betula lutea''); white birch (''Betula pendula''); sweet birch (Betula lenta); river birch (''Betula nigra'')
 
betula; birk (Dan.); bouleau (Fr.); Birke (Deut.); beulla (It.); abedul (Esp.); berk (Ned.); betula (Port.); bjørk (Nor.); brzoza (Pol.); björk (Sven.); black birch (''Betula nigra''); paper birch (''Betula papyrifera''); cherry birch (''Betula lenta''); yellow birch (''Betula lutea''); white birch (''Betula pendula''); sweet birch (Betula lenta); river birch (''Betula nigra'')
 +
 +
== Working Properties ==
 +
 +
Brich wood is pale with a fine grain and produced a nice satin sheen.  Plywood made from birch is lightweight and strong but not suitable for outdoor use.
  
 
== Other Properties ==
 
== Other Properties ==
 +
[[File:Birch trees_group2_AA.jpg|thumb|Birch trees''Betula'' spp.]]
  
 
Tree height = 20-25m  Bark = light gray to white, often peeling in papery strips   
 
Tree height = 20-25m  Bark = light gray to white, often peeling in papery strips   
Line 28: Line 30:
 
| specific gravity = 0.67
 
| specific gravity = 0.67
 
|}
 
|}
 
[[File:Birch trees_group2_AA.jpg|thumb|Birch trees
 
 
''Betula'' spp.]]
 
  
 
Paper fiber type: hardwood, diffuse porous. Using transmitted light microscopy, pulp is identified by vessels with small diffuse pitting that may be alternate or arranged in a spiral. Perforations are  scalariform with >10 bars (except river birch). Appearance with [[Graff "C" stain]]: dark blue, but varies with bleaching. Average dimensions of fibers: length, 1.8mm . 25μm wide. Common pulping method: [[kraft process|kraft]].
 
Paper fiber type: hardwood, diffuse porous. Using transmitted light microscopy, pulp is identified by vessels with small diffuse pitting that may be alternate or arranged in a spiral. Perforations are  scalariform with >10 bars (except river birch). Appearance with [[Graff "C" stain]]: dark blue, but varies with bleaching. Average dimensions of fibers: length, 1.8mm . 25μm wide. Common pulping method: [[kraft process|kraft]].
Line 38: Line 36:
  
 
° Schoch, W., Heller, I., Schweingruber, F.H., Kienast, F., 2004:[http://www.woodanatomy.ch/ Wood anatomy of central European Species]: Common Birch, White Birch,[http://www.woodanatomy.ch/species.php?code=BEAL Betula alba (B. pendula / B. pubescens)]
 
° Schoch, W., Heller, I., Schweingruber, F.H., Kienast, F., 2004:[http://www.woodanatomy.ch/ Wood anatomy of central European Species]: Common Birch, White Birch,[http://www.woodanatomy.ch/species.php?code=BEAL Betula alba (B. pendula / B. pubescens)]
 +
 +
'''Links to Oddy Test results posted on AIC Wiki Materials Database Pages for individual materials below'''<br>
 +
 +
° [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Case_Construction_Materials#birch0001 Birch Plywood] Tested in 2016
 +
 +
° PureBond [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Case_Construction_Materials#birch0002 Birch Faced Plywood] Tested in 2006
 +
 +
° PureBond [http://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/Oddy_Test_Results:_Case_Construction_Materials#birch0003 Birch Faced Plywood] Tested in 2006
  
 
== Additional Images ==
 
== Additional Images ==
Line 48: Line 54:
  
 
== Sources Checked for Data in Record ==
 
== Sources Checked for Data in Record ==
 +
 +
* Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, at [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birch Birch] (Accessed April 2020)
  
 
* ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', http://www.britannica.com  Comment: Retrieved May 25, 2003, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
 
* ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', http://www.britannica.com  Comment: Retrieved May 25, 2003, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
Line 66: Line 74:
  
 
* Website address 1  Comment: Virginia Tech Dencrology website at www.fw.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/main.htm (accessed Oct. 3, 2005)
 
* Website address 1  Comment: Virginia Tech Dencrology website at www.fw.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/main.htm (accessed Oct. 3, 2005)
 
* Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, at http://www.wikipedia.com  Comment: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birch (Accessed Oct. 3, 2005)
 
  
 
* ''Caring for your Collections'', Arthur W Schulz (ed.), Harry N. Abrams, Inc. , New York, 1992
 
* ''Caring for your Collections'', Arthur W Schulz (ed.), Harry N. Abrams, Inc. , New York, 1992

Latest revision as of 15:58, 11 April 2020

MFA Acc. #: 17.1771

Description

MFA Acc. #: 1980.398

A hardy, deciduous tree of the family Betulaceae that is common to North America, Europe and Asia. Birch trees are readily distinguished by their white bark and diamond-shaped leaves. The wood is close-grained with a satinny texture that takes nice polish. The lightweight bark is full of natural waxes, oils and tannins that make it tough, durable, and waterproof. Thin sheets of bark were commonly used for paper in Central Asia and the Far East. The water-impervious bark was used for wigwams, canoes, and shoes for North American Indians. Birch produces a strong, pale yellow-brown wood with a close, straight grain and uniform texture that finishes to a smooth surface. It is sometimes dyed to imitate mahogany. Birch is used for tools handles, plywood, hoops, shoe heels, flooring, furniture, cabinetry, and firewood. Dyes can also be obtained from the leaves gathered before they develop a mature green color, produce a yellow dye while the soluble parts of the bark produce a pale brown color. The female catkins (a long shoot bearing flowers with no leaves) are boiled to produce a dull yellow color. Birch bark oil and birch beer are made from sap obtained from the trees. The sap, also called birch tar or Russian oil, and allows the wood to burn even when it is wet. It also produces a thermoplastic resin that is used as a waterproof adhesive, flavoring and fragrance.

For micrographs of thin sections, also see paper birch, yellow birch, and black birch.

Synonyms and Related Terms

betula; birk (Dan.); bouleau (Fr.); Birke (Deut.); beulla (It.); abedul (Esp.); berk (Ned.); betula (Port.); bjørk (Nor.); brzoza (Pol.); björk (Sven.); black birch (Betula nigra); paper birch (Betula papyrifera); cherry birch (Betula lenta); yellow birch (Betula lutea); white birch (Betula pendula); sweet birch (Betula lenta); river birch (Betula nigra)

Working Properties

Brich wood is pale with a fine grain and produced a nice satin sheen. Plywood made from birch is lightweight and strong but not suitable for outdoor use.

Other Properties

Birch treesBetula spp.

Tree height = 20-25m Bark = light gray to white, often peeling in papery strips

Wood is moderately acidic. Color: light yellow-brown to reddish brown. Rings: obscure. Pores: diffuse, fine. Grain: faint. Rays: obscure. On quarter sawed wood, rays appear as small brown flakes. Hard, heavy, poor weatherability.

Density 32-48 ppcf
Molecular Weight specific gravity = 0.67

Paper fiber type: hardwood, diffuse porous. Using transmitted light microscopy, pulp is identified by vessels with small diffuse pitting that may be alternate or arranged in a spiral. Perforations are scalariform with >10 bars (except river birch). Appearance with Graff "C" stain: dark blue, but varies with bleaching. Average dimensions of fibers: length, 1.8mm . 25μm wide. Common pulping method: kraft.

Additional Information

° Schoch, W., Heller, I., Schweingruber, F.H., Kienast, F., 2004:Wood anatomy of central European Species: Common Birch, White Birch,Betula alba (B. pendula / B. pubescens)

Links to Oddy Test results posted on AIC Wiki Materials Database Pages for individual materials below

° Birch Plywood Tested in 2016

° PureBond Birch Faced Plywood Tested in 2006

° PureBond Birch Faced Plywood Tested in 2006

Additional Images

Sources Checked for Data in Record

  • Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, at Birch (Accessed April 2020)
  • Encyclopedia Britannica, http://www.britannica.com Comment: Retrieved May 25, 2003, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
  • F. H. Titmuss, Commercial Timbers of the World, The Technical Press Ltd., London, 1965 Comment: 35-48 ppcf
  • John S. Mills, Raymond White, The Organic Chemistry of Museum Objects, Butterworth Heineman, London, 2nd ed., 1994
  • External source or communication Comment: Hardwood Manufacturers Institute, Memphis Tenn.: air-dry weight = 43 ppcf
  • R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia, Dover Publications, New York, 1966
  • G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 598
  • Ralph Mayer, A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969 (also 1945 printing)
  • Dictionary of Building Preservation, Ward Bucher, ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York City, 1996
  • Website address 1 Comment: Virginia Tech Dencrology website at www.fw.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/main.htm (accessed Oct. 3, 2005)
  • Caring for your Collections, Arthur W Schulz (ed.), Harry N. Abrams, Inc. , New York, 1992
  • Pam Hatchfield, Pollutants in the Museum Environment, Archetype Press, London, 2002
  • Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, Douglas M. Considine (ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1976
  • Random House, Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, Grammercy Book, New York, 1997
  • The American Heritage Dictionary or Encarta, via Microsoft Bookshelf 98, Microsoft Corp., 1998
  • CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Robert Weast (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, v. 61, 1980 Comment: density=32-48 ppcf (0.51-0.77 g/cm3)
  • Marja-Sisko Ilvessalo-Pfäffli. Fiber Atlas: Identification of Papermaking Fibers (Springer Series in Wood Science). Springer, 1995.
  • Walter Rantanen. "Fiber ID Course." Integrated Paper Services. June 2013. Lecture.