A layered assembly of hardwood or softwood veneers bonded together at right angles with an adhesive. Plywood was originally called scale boards in a 1865 patent. In the nineteenth century, plywood was manufactured from hardwoods (maple, birch, etc.) and used by furniture makers for concealed parts such as drawer bottoms. By the beginning of the 20th century, plywood was used for doors, seats, and desk tops. Douglas fir softwood plywood was first made in 1905; southern pine became extensively used in 1964 for softwood plywood. Plywood has been used in airplanes, automobiles, and house construction. Early panels were adhered with hide glue, blood glue, cassava flour, casein glue, and soybean glue. In 1935, plywood was made with synthetic thermosetting formaldehyde adhesives (phenol formaldehyde, and urea formaldehyde). By 1939 melamine formaldehyde resins were used and a few years later resorcinol adhesives were also in use. Currently, water-resistant phenol formaldehyde adhesives are used for exterior-use plywood and urea formaldehyde resins are used in interior-use plywood. Plywood has a high strength-to weight ratio, is resistant to splitting, can be molded into compound curves, and is more dimensionally stable than solid wood.
Synonyms and Related Terms
laminated wood; Holzwerkstoff (Deut.); contrachapado (Esp.); tripley (Esp.); contreplaqué (Fr.); compensato (It.); triplex (Ned.); multiplex (Ned.); sklejka (Pol.); contraplacado (Port.); veneered construction; Plyshield; Haskelite; Harbord; Plankweld; Plycrete; Plymetal; Weldtex; Weldwood; scale board
Hazards and Safety
Some plywoods contain urea-formaldehyde adhesives which emit formaldehyde.
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