A dispersion of cellulose fibers in water. Paper manufactured in the west before the 1850s was made primarily from cotton and bast fiber (usually linen textile made from flax). Most raw materials for paper production in the western world came from rags or other textile waste. Due to shortages of these materials, experiments with other raw materials for paper pulp were common, but not as successful. In 1854, a process was patented for the production of paper pulp from wood. Wood pulp can be created from wood mechanically (see mechanical wood pulp) or chemically (see chemical wood pulp). Paper pulp can also be made from grass.
- The Dictionary of Paper, American Paper Institute, New York, Fourth Edition, 1980
- E.J.LaBarre, Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Paper and Paper-making, Swets & Zeitlinger, Amsterdam, 1969
- G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 578