Difference between revisions of "Safflower: Ukiyo-e colorant"

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Safflower over turmeric 21.9230.png|Red over yellow
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Safflower over turmeric 21.9230.png|Orange house (MFA 21.9230) with safflower and turmeric
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Safflower over turmeric 21.9230 EEM.png|EEM
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Safflower over turmeric 21.9230 FORS.png|FORS
 
Safflower over turmeric 21.9230 XRF.png|XRF
 
Safflower over turmeric 21.9230 XRF.png|XRF
 
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Safflower light brown kimono dayflower 11.17586.png|safflower, dayflower
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Safflower dayflower brown kimono 11.17643.png|Brown kimono (MFA 11.17643) with both safflower and dayflower
Safflower light brown dayflower 11.17586 XRF.png|XRF
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Safflower Dayflower brown 11.17643 EEM.png|EEM
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Safflower Dayflower brown 11.17643 XRF.png|XRF
 
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<gallery>
Safflower dayflower brown kimono 11.17643.png|safflower, dayflower
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Safflower light brown kimono dayflower 11.17586.png|Brown kimono (MFA 11.17586) with both safflower and dayflower
Safflower Dayflower brown 11.17643 XRF.png|XRF
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Safflower light brown dayflower 11.17586 EEM.png|EEM
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Safflower light brown dayflower 11.17586 FORS.png|FORS
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Safflower light brown dayflower 11.17586 XRF.png|XRF
 
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Safflower purple dayflower 06.795.png|safflower, dayflower
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Safflower purple dayflower 06.795.png|Purple kimono (MFA 06.7956) with both safflower and dayflower
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Safflower purple dayflower 06.795 EEM.png|EEM
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Safflower purple dayflower 06.795 FORS.png|FORS
 
Safflower purple dayflower 06.795 XRF.png|XRF
 
Safflower purple dayflower 06.795 XRF.png|XRF
 
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Revision as of 11:43, 16 October 2019

For ukiyo-e woodblock prints, Carthamus tinctorius (safflower) was the primary red and pink colorant used consistently for all of the time periods and printing methods.

Safflower - benibana The florets of Carthamus tinctorius (safflower) produce a wide range of colors from cherry red to pink (fig. 7). Native to northern India and the Near East, this popular dye plant was widely cultivated throughout Asia and Europe by the end of the 13th century. The florets are picked, then dried and crushed into a paste. The paste is washed with water to remove the non-lightfast yellow chromophors including several quinochalcones. The red colorant, primarily carthamin, is then extracted in an alkaline bath. The deepest reds are obtained through several initial washings to remove all of the water-soluble yellows.

Red regions containing safflower were usually seen as brightly fluorescence during the preliminary examination of the prints with a hand-held UV light. Thus, it was no surprise that the EEM fluorescence technique provided a unique and definitive pattern for safflower, even when it was visually observed in the print as a faded brown color. In addition to the fluorescence for the red chromophor, the pattern often contained an additional peak for the yellow chromophore that was supposedly removed in the preparation of the red colorant but often needed several washings for complete elimination.

The presence of this mixture throughout the history of color printing seems to indicate that the tone obtained by mixing dayflower blue and safflower was preferred over other possible mixtures of reds and blues to yield purple (for example indigo and madder).