Black chalk

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Contents

Description

An old name for a soft, blue-black variety of a clay formed from aluminum containing slate. Black chalk obtains its color from impurities of carbon, black iron oxide, or manganese oxide. It was sometimes used as a crayon or writing tool, especially since the Rennaisance. Black chalk was mined in Thuringia, parts of France and Andalucia. Sometimes graphite was also referred to as black chalk.

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Synonyms and Related Terms

craie noire (Fr.); lapiz negro (Esp.); grafite (It.); piombaggine (It.); mineral black; black earth; Italian chalk

Hazards and Safety

No significant hazards.

Additional Information

J.Winter, "The Characterization of Pigments Based on Carbon" Studies in Conservation 28:49-66, 1983.

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Authority

  • R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia, Dover Publications, New York, 1966
  • Ralph Mayer, A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969 (also 1945 printing)
  • R.D. Harley, Artists' Pigments c. 1600-1835, Butterworth Scientific, London, 1982
  • The Dictionary of Art, Grove's Dictionaries Inc., New York, 1996 Comment: "Pigments" and "Chalk"
  • Susan E. Schur, Conservation Terminology: A review of Past & Current Nomenclature of Materials, Technology and Conservation, Spring (p.34-39); Summer (p.35-38); Fall (p.25-36), 1985
  • Monona Rossol, The Artist's Complete Health and Safety Guide, Allworth Press, New York, 1994

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