A soft, white metallic element. Tin occurs naturally as cassiterite, a tin oxide mineral. It has an abundance of 6 ppm in the earth's crust. The major producers are : China, Indonesia, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Congo (Kinshasa), Viet Nam, Malaysia, Australia, Russia. Tin was produced for centuries in Cornwall by the Romans. It was (and still is) used as an ingredient in bronze casting alloys. Pewter is a tin (90%) alloy with copper and antimony. Tin alloyed with lead (75-90%) is called leaded tin. Both pure tin (also called bright tin and tinplate) and leaded tin were used in the U.S. in the 18th century as iron coatings in architectural construction (roofing pans, flashings, gutters) and for decorative items (trays, utensils, kitchenware, candlesticks, and boxes). From the 19th century, tin was used for cast toys and as a plating for iron toys. Tin quickly forms a passive oxide layer that resists pollutants and corrosion. However, any breaks or pits in the tin layer can cause severe deterioration due to galvanic action between the tin and iron.
Synonyms and Related Terms
Sn; stannum; étain (Fr.); Zinn (Deut.); stagno (It.); estanho (Port.); estaño (Esp.); tin (Ned.); Tenn (Sven.); straits tin (from Malaysia); tin flake; tin metal; tole
Resistant to organic acids. Insoluble in water. Dissolves slowly in dilute hydrochloric and nitric acids.
Cacotheline nitrate may be used for the colorimetric detection of tin in objects. Cacotheline reacts with tin to produce a dark purple residue.
|Composition||Sn (atomic no. 50)|
|Molecular Weight||atomic wt = 118.710|
Hazards and Safety
Tin crumbles to dust at temperatures below 18 C (tin pest). Inorganic tin compounds can cause skin irritation. Organic tin compounds are toxic causing headaches, nausea, pain.
Mallinckrodt Baker: MSDS
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