A strong, tough drying oil expressed from the seeds of the tung trees, Vernicia fordii (Aleurites fordii), indigenous to the mountain regions of China. Since the 1920's, tung trees have been cultivated in Florida, California and Australia. Unlike many other drying oils, tung oil contains oleic (4.1%) and eleostearic (90.7%) fatty acids. Tung oil polymerizes rapidly to form a yellowish, hard, waterproof, wear resistant film; thick coatings may wrinkle and cool temperatures may produce a tacky surface. Tung oil is most often used for spar varnishes, wood finishes, floor sealers; oil cloth, and oil-based paints. It is also used in the production of linoleum. Tung oil is not used as an artist paint medium but it has been added in small amounts to casein emulsions.
Synonyms and Related Terms
Vernicia fordii (Aleurites fordii); Aleurites cordata; Aleurites montana; aceite de tung (Esp.); olio di Tung, olio di Aleurites (It); wood oil; Chinawood oil; China-wood oil; Chinese wood oil; crystal China wood; tang oil; teak oil
Liquid oil is soluble in chloroform, ether, carbon disulfide, oils. Dried film is insoluble in most solvents.
Saponification number = 191-196; Iodine number = 150-175; Acid value = 0-12
Hazards and Safety
May cause skin irritation. Combustible.
Sources Checked for Data in Record
- Encyclopedia Britannica, http://www.britannica.com Comment: "Tung Oil." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2004. Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. 14 Apr. 2004 .
- Website address 2 Comment: Virginia Tech Dendrology website at www.fw.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/main.htm (accessed Oct. 8, 2005) - current name = Vernicia fordii (synonym to Aleurites fordii)
- Website address 3 Comment: USDA Plants Database at http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=plant_profile.cgi&symbol=VEFO Scientitic name= Vernicia fordii (synonym = Aleurites fordii); tree is on Invasive Plant List for U.S.
- R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia, Dover Publications, New York, 1966
- M. Doerner, The Materials of the Artist, Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1934
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- Website address 1 Comment: For tree information see Handbook for Energy Crops by James Duke, 1983. at http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Aleurites_fordii.html
- Thomas B. Brill, Light Its Interaction with Art and Antiquities, Plenum Press, New York City, 1980
- G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 825
- Richard S. Lewis, Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 10th ed., 1993
- The Merck Index, Martha Windholz (ed.), Merck Research Labs, Rahway NJ, 10th edition, 1983 Comment: entry 9944
- CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Robert Weast (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, v. 61, 1980 Comment: melting point = -2.5, density=0.934, ref. index = 1.5174, iodine value=168.2, saponification value = 193.1; eleostearic acid (90.7%)
- Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabulary/aat/, J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 2000