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An opaque sky-blue semiprecious gemstone. Turquoise is composed of a hydrated basic copper aluminum phosphate mineral. It was used for beads as early as 5000 BE in Mesopotamia. Major deposits were worked in Iran (Nishapur, Juh-e Zar, Kuh-i-Firouzeh) and on the Sinai Peninsula. Turquoise is also found in Siberia, Turkestan, Germany (Saxony), France, England (Cornwall), Australia and the U.S.(Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, California, New Mexico). Turquoise can be blue, greenish blue or green with inclusions of red sandstone. Turquoise is used for cabochon jewelry, inlays, beads and small carvings.


Synonyms and Related Terms

turqoius; calliana; callais; Mecca stones; Türkis (Deut.); turquesa (Esp., Port.); turquoise (Fr.); turkoise (Ned.)

Other Properties

Triclinic system, opaque, dense, cryptocrystalline to fine-grain massive.

Fracture is conchoidal. Luster = waxy. Streak = white to pale-green.

Soluble in hot hydrochloric acid.

Composition CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8 - 4H2O
Mohs Hardness 5 - 6
Density 2.6-2.9
Refractive Index 1.61; 1.62; 1.65
Turquoise stone

Hazards and Safety

Stone can discolor to green with wear or contact with oils and grease

Additional Information

Mineralogy Database: Turquoise


Properties of Common Gemstones


  • Jack Odgen, Jewellery of the Ancient World, Rizzoli International Publications Inc., New York City, 1982
  • R.F.Symmes, T.T.Harding, Paul Taylor, Rocks, Fossils and Gems, DK Publishing, Inc., New York City, 1997
  • A.Lucas, J.R.Harris, Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries, Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd., London, 4th edition, 1962
  • Encyclopedia Britannica, http://www.britannica.com Comment: "turquoise" Encyclopædia Britannica. [Accessed September 19, 2003].
  • C.W.Chesterman, K.E.Lowe, Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Rocks and Minerals, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1979
  • Encyclopedia of Archaeology, Glyn E. Daniel, ed., Thomas Y. Crowell Co., New York, 1977
  • G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 833
  • Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, Douglas M. Considine (ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1976
  • Michael McCann, Artist Beware, Watson-Guptill Publications, New York City, 1979

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