Difference between revisions of "Ground"

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== Description ==
 
== Description ==
  
A foundation layer used to prepare a support material for the application of paint.  Grounds provide a smooth, uniform, and nonporous surface.  They can also act as a separating and stabilizing layer to minimize environmental distortions or support deterioration due to reactions with the paint.
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A foundation layer used to prepare a support material for the application of media.  Grounds provide a smooth, uniform, and nonporous surface.  They can also act as a separating and stabilizing layer to minimize environmental distortions or support deterioration due to reactions with the paint.
  
 
For artist paintings, grounds typically fall into these categories.
 
For artist paintings, grounds typically fall into these categories.
  
1. Gesso or chalk - a [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=glue glue] binder mixed with [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=gypsum gypsum] or [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=chalk chalk]
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1. Gesso or chalk - a [[glue]] binder mixed with [[gypsum]] or [[chalk]]
  
 
2. Emulsion -a glue medium emulsified with some oil, egg, or natural resin
 
2. Emulsion -a glue medium emulsified with some oil, egg, or natural resin
  
3. Oil ground- a drying oil, such as [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=linseed oil linseed oil], with [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=lead white lead white] or other white pigment
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3. Oil ground- a drying oil, such as [[linseed oil]], with [[lead white]] or other white pigment
  
 
4. Synthetic - acrylic or alkyd based primer introduced in the late 20th century
 
4. Synthetic - acrylic or alkyd based primer introduced in the late 20th century
  
For gilding, [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=bole bole] is used as a colored ground or priming layer.  Bole is typically composed of a red or brown clay.  Colored grounds have also been used for drawings and paintings made with [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=gouache gouache], [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=pastel pastel], [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=charcoal charcoal], and [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=crayon crayon].  
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For gilding, [[bole]] is used as a colored ground or priming layer.  Bole is typically composed of a red or brown clay.  Colored grounds have also been used for [[metal point]] drawings and paintings made with [[gouache]], [[pastel]], [[charcoal]], and [[crayon]].  
  
For printmaking, the ground layer is a dark, acid-resistant coating containing [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=wax wax], [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=tallow tallow], [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=asphalt asphalt], and/or [http://cameo.mfa.org/materials/fullrecord.asp?name=natural resin natural resin].
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For printmaking, the ground layer is a dark, acid-resistant coating containing [[wax]], [[tallow]], [[asphalt]], and/or [[natural resin]].
  
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
  
primer; gesso; preparacin (Esp.); aparejo (Esp.); prparation (Fr.); fond (Fr.); camada preparatria (Port.); preparao (Port.)
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primer; gesso; preparación (Esp.); aparejo (Esp.); préparation (Fr.); fond (Fr.); camada preparatória (Port.); preparação (Port.)
  
 
== Additional Information ==
 
== Additional Information ==
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J.Stephenson, "Ground" ''The Dictionary of Art'', Grove's Dictionaries Inc. New York, 1996.
 
J.Stephenson, "Ground" ''The Dictionary of Art'', Grove's Dictionaries Inc. New York, 1996.
  
== Authority ==
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== Sources Checked for Data in Record ==
  
* Reed Kay, Reed Kay, ''The Painter's Guide To Studio Methods and Materials'', Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1983
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* Reed Kay, ''The Painter's Guide To Studio Methods and Materials'', Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1983
  
* Ralph Mayer, Ralph Mayer, ''A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques'', Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969 (also 1945 printing)
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* Ralph Mayer, ''A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques'', Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969 (also 1945 printing)
  
  
  
 
[[Category:Materials database]]
 
[[Category:Materials database]]

Latest revision as of 05:00, 1 May 2016

Description

A foundation layer used to prepare a support material for the application of media. Grounds provide a smooth, uniform, and nonporous surface. They can also act as a separating and stabilizing layer to minimize environmental distortions or support deterioration due to reactions with the paint.

For artist paintings, grounds typically fall into these categories.

1. Gesso or chalk - a glue binder mixed with gypsum or chalk

2. Emulsion -a glue medium emulsified with some oil, egg, or natural resin

3. Oil ground- a drying oil, such as linseed oil, with lead white or other white pigment

4. Synthetic - acrylic or alkyd based primer introduced in the late 20th century

For gilding, bole is used as a colored ground or priming layer. Bole is typically composed of a red or brown clay. Colored grounds have also been used for metal point drawings and paintings made with gouache, pastel, charcoal, and crayon.

For printmaking, the ground layer is a dark, acid-resistant coating containing wax, tallow, asphalt, and/or natural resin.

Synonyms and Related Terms

primer; gesso; preparación (Esp.); aparejo (Esp.); préparation (Fr.); fond (Fr.); camada preparatória (Port.); preparação (Port.)

Additional Information

J.Stephenson, "Ground" The Dictionary of Art, Grove's Dictionaries Inc. New York, 1996.

Sources Checked for Data in Record

  • Reed Kay, The Painter's Guide To Studio Methods and Materials, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1983
  • Ralph Mayer, A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969 (also 1945 printing)

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