Flavonoids: Ukiyo-e colorant

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Yoritomo's Hunt by Torii Kiyomitsu I

Flavonoids: A group of organic colorant composed of heterocyclic aromatic compounds. For this database, a group of organic yellow colorants have been grouped under flavonoids due to this common chemical composition and difficulty in identifying them individually. Organic yellow colorants that have been thought to have been traditionally used in ukiyo-e prints that fall into this category are: Gardenia or 梔子(kuchinashi), Miscanthus tinctorius grass plant or 苅安(kariyasu), Mountain peach or 山桃(yamamomo), Pagoda tree or 槐(enju), and Toringo crabapple or 棠梨(zumi).

Flavonoids have been detected throughout the production of prints from 1690's through the 1860's. With current non-destructive analytical techniques, it is difficult to identify the exact source of each flavonoid. Flavonoids are duller and more beige when compared to the vibrant yellows produced by turmeric and orpiment. On prints, the dull appearance of flavonoids is little known since it can be their natural state or due to age and/or fading.

For more information see: Flavonoid, Gardenia, Gardenia LC, Kariyasu, Chinese grass (Miscanthus tinctorius) LC, Pagoda tree, Pagoda tree (Styphnolobium japonicum) LC, Zumi

Examples of Flavonoids in Ukiyo-e Prints

Dyed indigo.jpg

Indigo FORS.JPG
Beauties of the Yoshiwara by Suzuki Harunobu

Dyed indigo.jpg

Indigo FORS.JPG
Beauties of the Yoshiwara by Suzuki Harunobu

Dyed indigo.jpg

Indigo FORS.JPG
Beauties of the Yoshiwara by Suzuki Harunobu

Dyed indigo.jpg

Indigo FORS.JPG
Beauties of the Yoshiwara by Suzuki Harunobu

Dyed indigo.jpg

Indigo FORS.JPG
Beauties of the Yoshiwara by Suzuki Harunobu

Analysis

Flavonoids, such as pagoda tree and kariyasu fluoresce weakly under ultraviolet radiation and only have slight differences in their EEM patterns. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing these organic yellows, the decision was made to group them as flavonoids to minimize mistakes in identification.

Other Images of Flavonoids

Take photos of the other yellows to add.

List of Prints

Below is a list of prints where flavonoids were detected.

Pages in category "Flavonoids: Ukiyo-e colorant"

The following 49 pages are in this category, out of 49 total.