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An archaic common name for Umber, a dark brown earth pigment contains Silica, Clay, and a mixture iron hydroxide and Manganese dioxide. The name brown chalk was used prior to the 1800s when chemical compound names were standardized (Schur 1985).
Resources and Citations
- Susan E. Schur, Conservation Terminology: A review of Past & Current Nomenclature of Materials, Technology and Conservation, Spring (p.34-39); Summer (p.35-38); Fall (p.25-36), 1985