A surface deterioration process that occurs in stone and concretes that is caused by the crystallization of highly soluble salts, such as sodium chloride and sodium sulfate. Crumbling can also be a result of weak masonry materials, a dissolved binder, or freeze-thaw thermal cycling.
Resources and Citations
- ICOMOS-ISCS: Illustrated glossary on stone deterioration patterns
- James Clifton, Stone Consolidating Materials: A status report