Jump to navigation Jump to search
Double duct flute
MFA# 17.1826


Any of several shrubs from the genus Ilex that are found throughout the world. Holly plants typically have glossy green leaves with red berries and are grown for ornamentation. Timber from the holly has a fine uniform texture with an irregular grain pattern. It has been used for sculpture, carving, small articles, Veneer, and Marquetry.

Synonyms and Related Terms

Ilex aquifolium (English holly); Ilex opaca (American holly); houx (Fr.); acebo (Esp.); agrifoglio (It.)

American holly Ilex opaca

Physical and Chemical Properties

Density = 45-55 ppcf

Paper fiber type: hardwood. Using transmitted light microscopy, pulp is identified by oblong vessels with with heavy pitting. Perforations are scalariform with tapered, spiraled ends . Appearance with Graff "C" stain: dark blue, but varies with bleaching. Common pulping method: kraft.

Additional Images

Resources and Citations

  • G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 402
  • Ralph Mayer, A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969 (also 1945 printing)
  • F. H. Titmuss, Commercial Timbers of the World, The Technical Press Ltd., London, 1965 Comment: 45-55 ppcf
  • Dictionary of Building Preservation, Ward Bucher, ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York City, 1996
  • Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, Douglas M. Considine (ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1976
  • Random House, Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, Grammercy Book, New York, 1997
  • The American Heritage Dictionary or Encarta, via Microsoft Bookshelf 98, Microsoft Corp., 1998
  • CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Robert Weast (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, v. 61, 1980 Comment: density=47 ppcf (0.76 g/cm3)
  • Walter Rantanen. "Fiber ID Course." Integrated Paper Services. June 2013. Lecture.