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Etruscan Scarab
MFA# 21.1197


A translucent orange to reddish-brown form of Chalcedony. Sard is darker than Carnelian, but otherwise a similar stone. Both have been mined or gathered since at least 3000 BCE. Water-worn pebbles of sard are found in Egypt, India, and several areas of Europe. It was popular for amulets and scarabs.

Oval gem
MFA# 13.237

Synonyms and Related Terms

chalcedony; sardius; sardoine; sardine

Physical and Chemical Properties

Fracture = conchoidal. Luster = vitreous to waxy. Streak = white

Mohs Hardness 7.0
Density 2.6


Properties of Common Gemstones

Resources and Citations

  • Jack Odgen, Jewellery of the Ancient World, Rizzoli International Publications Inc., New York City, 1982
  • A.Lucas, J.R.Harris, Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries, Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd., London, 4th edition, 1962
  • C.W.Chesterman, K.E.Lowe, Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Rocks and Minerals, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1979
  • G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 22
  • Random House, Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, Grammercy Book, New York, 1997
  • The American Heritage Dictionary or Encarta, via Microsoft Bookshelf 98, Microsoft Corp., 1998