A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 50% by weight of vinyl alcohol units and in which the total of the vinyl alcohol units and any one or more of the various acetal units is at least 85% by weight of the fiber (Federal Trade Commission definition). Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) was first made in Germany in 1924 and, in 1931 it was sold as Synthofil, a water-soluble fiber. In 1939, a formaldehyde treatment process was developed to make the vinal fibers insoluble. The fibers are very flexible, durable and have a high tensile strength. Most commercially available vinal fibers are made in Japan. Vinal is used primarily for raincoats, jackets, umbrellas, tarpaulins, fishnets, and awnings.
Synonyms and Related Terms
vinal fibre; poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers; polyvinyl alcohol fibers; polyvinyl alcohol fibre; Vinylon; Synthofil [Wacker Chemie]; Kuravilon [Kurashiki Rayon]; Mewlon [Nichibo]; Sovron; Vilon; Vinol; Vinylal; Cremona;fibras Vinal(Esp.)
Physical and Chemical Properties
- Good chemical resistance; Resistant to microorganisms and insects.
- Attacked by formic acid, phenol, cresol and hydrogen peroxide
- Fibers are smooth; Cross section = round, bean-shaped or u-shaped
- Tenacity = 3.0 -8.5 g/denier (dry); 3.2-7.6 (wet)
- Elongation = 9-26 (dry); 10-27 (wet)
- Moisture regain = 3.0-9.0%.
- Melting Point = 220-230 C
- Density = 1.26-1.30g/ml
Resources and Citations
- Hoechst Celanese Corporation, Dictionary of Fiber & Textile Technology (older version called Man-made Fiber and Textile Dictionary, 1965), Hoechst Celanese Corporation, Charlotte NC, 1990
- Marjory L. Joseph, Introductory Textile Science, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Fort Worth, TX, 1986
- Identification of Textile Materials, The Textile Institute, Manchester, England, 1985
- J.Gordon Cook, Handbook of Textile Fibres:II Man-made Fibres, Merrow Publishing Co. , Durham, England