Difference between revisions of "Pine"

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(Description)
(Physical and Chemical Properties)
 
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[[File:1990.483-SC3180.jpg|thumb|]]
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[[File:1990.483-SC3180.jpg|thumb|Yellow pine Wardrobe<br>MFA# 1990.483]]
 
== Description ==
 
== Description ==
 
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[[File:66.1132-SC35020.jpg|thumb|Portative organ<br>MFA# 66.1132]]
 
Any of several evergreen trees of the genus ''Pinus''. Pine trees are widely spread throughout the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere.  They are fast growing and typical sizes for range from 15-45m.  These evergreen trees have clustered needles (adult leaves) that can persist for 1.5-40 years.  Cones can range in size froom 3-60 cm depending on species.  Pine wood is soft, easy to work and has little shrinkage. It is moderately resistant to decay and insect attack. Common uses for the lumber are furniture, window frames, floors and roofing.  The wood pulp is used to make kraft paper, paper board, and book paper. Pine trees have a resinous sap which is used to make turpentine and pine tar. Examples of pine trees are: [[Aleppo pine]], [[bristlecone pine]], [[Eastern white pine]], [[hoop pine]], [[jeffrey pine]], [[loblolly pine]], [[longleaf pine]], [[lodgepole pine]], [[pitch pine]], [[ponderosa pine]], [[monterey pine]], [[Scotch pine]], [[slash pine]], [[sugar pine]], [[shortleaf pine]], [[Western white pine]], and [[yellow pine]].
 
Any of several evergreen trees of the genus ''Pinus''. Pine trees are widely spread throughout the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere.  They are fast growing and typical sizes for range from 15-45m.  These evergreen trees have clustered needles (adult leaves) that can persist for 1.5-40 years.  Cones can range in size froom 3-60 cm depending on species.  Pine wood is soft, easy to work and has little shrinkage. It is moderately resistant to decay and insect attack. Common uses for the lumber are furniture, window frames, floors and roofing.  The wood pulp is used to make kraft paper, paper board, and book paper. Pine trees have a resinous sap which is used to make turpentine and pine tar. Examples of pine trees are: [[Aleppo pine]], [[bristlecone pine]], [[Eastern white pine]], [[hoop pine]], [[jeffrey pine]], [[loblolly pine]], [[longleaf pine]], [[lodgepole pine]], [[pitch pine]], [[ponderosa pine]], [[monterey pine]], [[Scotch pine]], [[slash pine]], [[sugar pine]], [[shortleaf pine]], [[Western white pine]], and [[yellow pine]].
 
* See also [[http://cameo.mfa.org/wiki/Category:Uemura_dye_archive '''Uemera Dye Archive''' (Kuromatsu)]]  
 
* See also [[http://cameo.mfa.org/wiki/Category:Uemura_dye_archive '''Uemera Dye Archive''' (Kuromatsu)]]  
[[File:66.1132-SC35020.jpg|thumb|]]
 
  
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[[File:pineconecm.jpg|thumb|Cones from Japanese umbrella pine]]
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
  
 
''Pinus''; fyr-slægten (Dan.); Kiefern (Deut.); Föhren (Deut.); pino (Esp., It.); pin (Fr.); den (Ned.); furu (Nor.); sosna (Pol.); pinho (Port.); tallar (Sven.); matsu (Jap.)
 
''Pinus''; fyr-slægten (Dan.); Kiefern (Deut.); Föhren (Deut.); pino (Esp., It.); pin (Fr.); den (Ned.); furu (Nor.); sosna (Pol.); pinho (Port.); tallar (Sven.); matsu (Jap.)
  
== Other Properties ==
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== Physical and Chemical Properties ==
 
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* Wide range of tree heights from 3-80m
Yellow powdery pollen is released in the spring or early summer.
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* Bark = thick and scaly
 
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* Leaves = needles on adult trees bundled in clusters, generally 2 to 5.
{| class="wikitable"
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* Yellow powdery pollen is released in the spring or early summer.
|-
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* Density = 25-35 ppcf
! scope="row"| Density
 
| 25-35 ppcf
 
|}
 
  
 
Paper fiber type: Softwood. Using transmitted light microscopy, pine fibers are identified by the presence of pinoid or fenestriform pits. Hard pines can be distinguished by the presence of dentate ray tracheids. See individual species for specific morphological characteristics. Appearance with [[Graff "C" stain]]: varies with pulping and bleaching. Average dimensions of fibers: varies by species. Common pulping method: [[kraft process|kraft]] and [[sulfite process|sulfite]].
 
Paper fiber type: Softwood. Using transmitted light microscopy, pine fibers are identified by the presence of pinoid or fenestriform pits. Hard pines can be distinguished by the presence of dentate ray tracheids. See individual species for specific morphological characteristics. Appearance with [[Graff "C" stain]]: varies with pulping and bleaching. Average dimensions of fibers: varies by species. Common pulping method: [[kraft process|kraft]] and [[sulfite process|sulfite]].
 
== Additional Information ==
 
 
Schoch, W., Heller, I., Schweingruber, F.H., Kienast, F., 2004:[http://www.woodanatomy.ch/ Wood anatomy of central European Species]: Common Pine,Scots Pine, [http://www.woodanatomy.ch/species.php?code=PISY Pinus silvestris L.]
 
  
 
== Additional Images ==
 
== Additional Images ==
  
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
File:pineconecm.jpg|Cones from Japanese umbrella pine
 
 
File:pinepollenlarge.jpg|Pine
 
File:pinepollenlarge.jpg|Pine
 
File:pinestem10xlarge.jpg|Pine
 
File:pinestem10xlarge.jpg|Pine
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File:Red pine 10x.jpg|Red pine paper pulp stained with Graff "C" stain
 
File:Red pine 10x.jpg|Red pine paper pulp stained with Graff "C" stain
 
File:Scotch pine 40x.jpg|Scotch pine paper pulp stained with Graff "C" stain
 
File:Scotch pine 40x.jpg|Scotch pine paper pulp stained with Graff "C" stain
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File:Uemura 10-08-2009 330.jpg|Silk dyed with pine tree parts; Uemera Dye Archive
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
== Sources Checked for Data in Record ==
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== Resources and Citation ==
 +
* Schoch, W., Heller, I., Schweingruber, F.H., Kienast, F., 2004:[http://www.woodanatomy.ch/ Wood anatomy of central European Species]: Common Pine,Scots Pine, [http://www.woodanatomy.ch/species.php?code=PISY Pinus silvestris L.]
  
 
* F. H. Titmuss, ''Commercial Timbers of the World'', The Technical Press Ltd., London, 1965
 
* F. H. Titmuss, ''Commercial Timbers of the World'', The Technical Press Ltd., London, 1965
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* ''Dictionary of Building Preservation'', Ward Bucher, ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York City, 1996
 
* ''Dictionary of Building Preservation'', Ward Bucher, ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York City, 1996
  
* ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', http://www.britannica.com  Comment: "Pine." Encyclopædia Britannica. 14 July 2004  .
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* ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', http://www.britannica.com  Comment: "Pine." Accessed: 14 July 2004   
  
* Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, at http://www.wikipedia.com  Comment: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pine (Accessed Nov. 9, 2005)
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* Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pine (Accessed Nov. 9, 2005)
  
 
* R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, ''Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia'', Dover Publications, New York, 1966
 
* R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, ''Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia'', Dover Publications, New York, 1966
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* G.S.Brady, ''Materials Handbook'', McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971  Comment: p. 612
 
* G.S.Brady, ''Materials Handbook'', McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971  Comment: p. 612
  
* Website address 1  Comment: Museum of Japanese Traditional Art Crafts at http://www.nihon-kogeikai.com/ (Jap. term)
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* Museum of Japanese Traditional Art Crafts at http://www.nihon-kogeikai.com/ (Jap. term)
  
 
* Marja-Sisko Ilvessalo-Pfäffli. ''Fiber Atlas: Identification of Papermaking Fibers'' (Springer Series in Wood Science). Springer, 1995.  
 
* Marja-Sisko Ilvessalo-Pfäffli. ''Fiber Atlas: Identification of Papermaking Fibers'' (Springer Series in Wood Science). Springer, 1995.  

Latest revision as of 10:17, 13 October 2020

Yellow pine Wardrobe
MFA# 1990.483

Description

Portative organ
MFA# 66.1132

Any of several evergreen trees of the genus Pinus. Pine trees are widely spread throughout the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. They are fast growing and typical sizes for range from 15-45m. These evergreen trees have clustered needles (adult leaves) that can persist for 1.5-40 years. Cones can range in size froom 3-60 cm depending on species. Pine wood is soft, easy to work and has little shrinkage. It is moderately resistant to decay and insect attack. Common uses for the lumber are furniture, window frames, floors and roofing. The wood pulp is used to make kraft paper, paper board, and book paper. Pine trees have a resinous sap which is used to make turpentine and pine tar. Examples of pine trees are: Aleppo pine, Bristlecone pine, Eastern white pine, Hoop pine, Jeffrey pine, Loblolly pine, Longleaf pine, Lodgepole pine, Pitch pine, Ponderosa pine, Monterey pine, Scotch pine, Slash pine, Sugar pine, Shortleaf pine, Western white pine, and Yellow pine.

Cones from Japanese umbrella pine

Synonyms and Related Terms

Pinus; fyr-slægten (Dan.); Kiefern (Deut.); Föhren (Deut.); pino (Esp., It.); pin (Fr.); den (Ned.); furu (Nor.); sosna (Pol.); pinho (Port.); tallar (Sven.); matsu (Jap.)

Physical and Chemical Properties

  • Wide range of tree heights from 3-80m
  • Bark = thick and scaly
  • Leaves = needles on adult trees bundled in clusters, generally 2 to 5.
  • Yellow powdery pollen is released in the spring or early summer.
  • Density = 25-35 ppcf

Paper fiber type: Softwood. Using transmitted light microscopy, pine fibers are identified by the presence of pinoid or fenestriform pits. Hard pines can be distinguished by the presence of dentate ray tracheids. See individual species for specific morphological characteristics. Appearance with Graff "C" stain: varies with pulping and bleaching. Average dimensions of fibers: varies by species. Common pulping method: kraft and sulfite.

Additional Images

Resources and Citation

  • F. H. Titmuss, Commercial Timbers of the World, The Technical Press Ltd., London, 1965
  • Dictionary of Building Preservation, Ward Bucher, ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York City, 1996
  • R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia, Dover Publications, New York, 1966
  • G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 612
  • Marja-Sisko Ilvessalo-Pfäffli. Fiber Atlas: Identification of Papermaking Fibers (Springer Series in Wood Science). Springer, 1995.
  • Walter Rantanen. "Fiber ID Course." Integrated Paper Services. June 2013. Lecture.